causes of bronchitis Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi that disturbs thempassability, and in the absence of treatment can lead to emphysema of the lungs and death. Obstructive bronchitis, whose treatment takes a long time and is not always successful, is easier to prevent. Obstructive bronchitis affects both adults and children. But if the children most often encounter an acute form of the disease, then in adults, the ailment can become chronic. With this disease, the patency of the respiratory tract is impaired. If the disease is not treated, it can not only become chronic, difficult to cure, but it can also lead to death. That's why at the first sign of shortness of breath, you should immediately visit a doctor, and not treat yourself. Delay is very dangerous.

Acute bronchitis. Symptoms

Children with weakened immunity, often sickcatarrhal diseases, ARVI or living in an unfavorable ecological situation, an acute form of obstruction can develop. This inflammation can have several forms:

  • acute simple bronchitis;
  • acute obstructive bronchitis;
  • acute bronchiolitis.

Obstructive bronchitis is different from simplethe emergence and development of obstruction - a spasm of small or large bronchi. Most often this type of ailment affects children from 2 to 4 years. It develops usually against the backdrop of another, underlying disease. Diagnosis can be recognized by the following symptoms:

  • The patient begins fever, there is a noticeable increase in temperature. It can last from 2 to 8 days. High temperature is especially dangerous for infants.
  • There is a sharp cough. At first it is dry, frequent, and difficult to breathe. Later, with the development of the disease, cough becomes wet, sputum begins to drain from the sick baby.
  • It develops severe shortness of breath, dry, and later wet wheezing in the chest, which can be heard even by the unaided ear.
  • Begins weakness, a general decline in strength.

symptoms of bronchitis

Acute obstructive bronchitis in children. Treatment

Treatment of acute forms can only be complex. It is good, if at care of the sick child parents can combine medical and national methods. Usually the following people are prescribed:

  • Drugs that bring down fever. However, they are recommended only in cases where the temperature exceeds 38.5 °.
  • Antibacterial drugs: vasoconstrictive for normalizing the breathing of the nose, antitussive in dry, expectorating with a damp cough.
  • Herbal infusions, decoctions, soothing cough, helping to sputum.

Of folk methods for treatment, you canUse an oil wrap, but only when the baby has a normal or only slightly elevated temperature. Do it like this. The towel is impregnated with unrefined oil boiled on a water bath, wrapping the child around it. Over wrapped with cellophane, wrapped in a blanket. This oil compress can be kept for several hours: warming helps the bronchi to expand, eliminates coughing, dilutes sputum.

Other folk ways to get rid of bronchitis

Important! Any folk methods of treatment should first be agreed with the attending physician.

  • Prepare a composition consisting of an egg, two spoons of cognac and the same amount of condensed milk. All beat up, dilute ¾ cup of boiling water, drink. After immediately taking a hot bath, go to bed.
  • Daily until the symptoms disappear completely put compresses of red clay, vodka with water (in half).
  • Take infusion of onions with garlic, boiled in milk with the addition of honey, mint juice.
  • Drink freshly squeezed fruit or herbs.

It is believed that in acute obstructive bronchitis, the composition of which the ingredients are:

  • 500 grams of an oleaster passed through a meat grinder or blender;
  • The same amount of pork overblown smaltz;
  • Polytrovaya bank melted on a couple or a water bath of honey, better than May;
  • Tablespoon of cocoa powder (for taste).

All components are mixed, given to the patient byspoon a quarter of an hour before eating. It is worth remembering that such methods of treatment can cause allergy, so without advice from a doctor to use them is not appropriate. In acute obstructive inflammation, it is important not only treatment, but also the behavior of the patient. He is obliged:

  • Observe the bed rest.
  • Take a lot of warm liquid: it helps to thin, and then discharge the phlegm.
  • Observe the milk diet, eat as much fruit and vegetables as possible.

Usually, for treatment of acute obstructive bronchitis in children, such treatment is enough. Only in the most severe cases, doctors prescribe antibiotics. treatment of bronchitis

Chronic form. Causes. Symptoms

Chronic form in children develops very rarely. Adults, on the contrary, are more inclined to this kind of disease. The causes of chronic inflammation are:

  • Hereditary pathology. Obstructive bronchitis often affects people who are inherited by the deficit of α1-antitrypsin.
  • Unfavorable environmental conditions: air pollution, harmful emissions, excessive humidity, etc.
  • Harmful professions. Obstruction is caused by cadmium, cement, work in mines, in some chemical industries.
  • Smoking.

Symptoms of chronic inflammation of the bronchi maynot always. Very often periods of exacerbation are replaced by remission, in which all symptoms are absent. The doctor diagnoses when the patient is:

  • Cough, often accompanied by wet wheezing or spitting. In the first stages, cough only appears in the morning, after waking.
  • Dyspnea. It should be remembered that dyspnea appears 7-10 years later than a chronic cough. First it arises with physical exertion, and at subsequent stages it becomes constant.
  • If chronic obstructive ailment is not treated, breathing becomes wheezing, when purulent sputum is released, dyspnea becomes a severe form of respiratory failure.
  • There is a general decline in strength, the patient has a persistent headache, pain behind the sternum.
  • If sputum enters the stomach, then symptoms include nausea, upset of the stool, pain in the stomach or intestines.

Incorrect treatment or lack of it leads to the fact that the periods of remission are sharply reduced. Inflammation can be fatal.

Treatment of chronic bronchitis

Treatment, which appoints the doctor to the sicka chronic form of obstructive bronchitis, is fundamentally different from the treatment of its acute form. In acute form, therapy is aimed at getting rid of the underlying disease, a complication of which is acute bronchitis. In the treatment of chronic obstruction, the doctor acts according to the following scheme.

  • First, the patient is trying to get rid of the factor that caused the disease. Sometimes for this purpose a primary disease is treated, sometimes it is suggested to the patient to change the climate.
  • Since the main symptom is difficultybreathing, patients are prescribed bronchodilator drugs (taking into account the age of the patient, his condition). It can be m-holinolitiki (naprmer, Spiriva). Bronchodilating action is also provided by β2-agonists (Salbutamol refers to them), methylxanthines.
  • Mucolytics are prescribed for liquefaction of sputum. It can be Bromhexine, Broncholitin, herbal preparations.
  • If pus is found in expectorant sputum, the doctor prescribes antibiotics.

Important! Itself is absolutely forbidden to choose the course of treatment! Improperly selected drugs do not facilitate, but complicate the treatment of chronic obstructive disease.

Prevention of bronchitis

Inflammation occurs as a result of attenuationimmunity. It can develop against the background of colds, chronic rhinitis, due to the impact of adverse conditions on the human body. To avoid the development of the disease, you must follow the following rules:

  • Do not allow long chronic rhinitis, timely treatment of ARVI, other seasonal diseases;
  • Do not overcool;
  • Tempering children from the earliest age. Adults should also be tempered, only so you can keep strong immunity;
  • Refuse bad habits: smoking, substance abuse, etc .;
  • If possible, ride a rest in a warm, dry climate;
  • Take vitamins, especially during the off-season.

Chronic obstructive bronchitis is the pathway to pulmonary emphysema and other complications

With constant inflammation of the respiratory tracta lot of mucus is formed, some of which is not excreted from the body, but clogs up (sometimes completely) the bronchi. Sensing a lack of air, a person tries to breathe more often, deeper, but this does not save him from lack of air. Obstructed bronchi, coughing attacks lead to an increase in pressure in the pulmonary lobules. They swell, the volume of lung tissue increases, but at the same time the respiratory surface decreases sharply, and some of the lobes die off. The thorax becomes inactive, develops emphysema, in which oxygen deficiency only increases. Sometimes, when the sputum clogs the bronchus, the lung does not swell, but collapses, because the air dissolves from it. So develops no less dangerous complication, which is called lung atelectasis. Gradually, the pulmonary tissue is replaced with scar tissue, which leads to irreversible consequences. The more often there is bronchial inflammation, the stronger it corrodes the vessels. There is a new symptom: hemoptysis. Separation of blood with sputum may be a sign of the development of a tumor of the lungs or bronchi. All these symptoms increase the burden on the heart. Gradually, the patient may develop cardiopulmonary insufficiency. There are other, no less dangerous complications of chronic obstructive bronchitis. To avoid them, it is recommended:

  • Engage in disease prevention;
  • Monitor immunity;
  • In time, treat any diseases that arise.