Without vaccinations in kindergarten? The question of whether a child can go to a kindergarten in the event that he does not have the necessary vaccinations, recently causes more and more heated debates and discussions, both among parents and among pedagogues and pediatric pediatricians. Someone is sure that the presence of children in the children's team who are not vaccinated, jeopardizes the health of other children, and therefore categorically unacceptable. And someone, on the contrary, believes that such an approach is a pronounced discrimination, violates the rights of the child, and therefore simply unacceptable, regardless of whether there are contra-indications to vaccinations in children or parents simply decided not to do so. The purpose of this article is to highlight this problem from all sides, in order to obtain an objective assessment. We draw your attention to the fact that the article is only for informational purposes and in no case can serve as a recommendation. The question of whether or not to be vaccinated should be decided only by parents with children's physicians. The editorial board also does not give any moral and ethical assessment to any of the parties, but only acquaints the reader with the arguments of both.
The purpose of preventive vaccinations
The fact that vaccinations are not only useful, but alsoare vital for all children, except for severe chronic diseases, for a long time was an indisputable axiom not only in Russia, but also in Europe. However, there are more and more opponents of such compulsory vaccination of children lately. Many parents prefer to vaccinate their babies according to their own individual vaccination schedule, rather than nationally. For the sake of justice, it should be noted that it is rather harsh and completely disregarding the health and development of each particular baby. In order for parents to decide whether their child needs preventive vaccinations, they should have at least an approximate idea of what vaccination is and for what it is needed, and also what complications may occur after it and what side effects it has. Most often, parents refuse to conduct planned preventive vaccinations, fearing side effects that the vaccine can cause. But it is necessary to take into account the fact that the vaccine is the same pharmacological drug as all other medicines. And it is quite natural that the vaccine can also cause side infections. However, one should not forget that those medicines that will have to be used in the event that the unvaccinated crumb gets an infectious disease, for example diphtheria, can cause much more serious side effects than the introduction of the vaccine. And the course of the disease itself will lead to much more sad consequences than the complication after vaccination. To begin with, let's deal with such concepts as vaccine, side effects and complications. The vaccine is inherently a biologically active pharmacological drug that causes changes in the immune system in order for a child to develop certain antibodies to the specific disease against which the vaccine was administered. Accordingly, in a vaccinated child the chances of contracting an infectious disease by contact with the source of infection are reduced to almost zero. Or, if infection does occur, the vaccinated child has a much easier disease than the untreated. A by-reaction to vaccination by a physician is usually called any negative reaction of the body to the administration of a vaccine - be it a significant increase in temperature, redness, or swelling of the injection site. According to immunologists, such adverse reactions are nothing more than an adequate reaction of the immune system to the introduction of a hostile infectious agent into the body. Most often, side effects serve as a signal for doctors that the vaccine has brought the expected result and the process of developing immunity is proceeding normally. So, for example, compaction and reddening of the skin at the site of injection of a vaccine against hepatitis indicates that the immune system actively produces the necessary antibodies. The complications after vaccination are of a different nature. Complications are very different - for example, a significant increase in the temperature of the child - up to 40 degrees, swelling of the lungs, severe allergic reactions. It goes without saying that if such symptoms occur, parents should deliver the child to the medical facility as soon as possible or call an ambulance team. Culprits of such complications after vaccination can be a variety of factors, in particular, the individual characteristics of the organism of each particular child, the attachment of secondary infection. By the way, secondary infection of the injection site, resulting in suppuration of soft tissues. Most often secondary infection occurs due to the fact that sanitary and hygienic norms are not observed during the introduction of the vaccine. In the event that a child has a thermometer reading off a figure of 39, before the arrival of doctors, parents should give the child any child's antipyretic. In the event that more than 5% of cases of complications arise for a vaccination with a series of drugs, it is immediately withdrawn and sent to the most thorough pharmacological control. However, fortunately, most often the inoculation for the baby turns into an easy deterioration of the baby's health, a slight increase in temperature, a small swelling and redness at the injection site. In order to reduce the risk of side effects to a possible minimum, the child should be carefully examined before vaccination. It is desirable to vaccinate a child according to the individual vaccination calendar, which takes into account all the features of the baby's health and development. Also parents should remember that they can make a paid vaccination for their baby. In kindergartens and clinics, free vaccinations against such infections as measles, polio, hepatitis, tetanus, whooping cough and mumps are made by domestic vaccines. Unfortunately, the level of cleaning of imported vaccines is much higher than that of domestic vaccines. If parents can not make a final decision, to vaccinate their child or not, a sensible decision will be to consult a physician-immunologist. He is the most competent in matters of "vaccinating children for and against". Of course, due to the shortage of doctors of this profile, they are not in every, especially a small, city. However, still it is not worth saving money - take the child to the nearest city, where the doctor is an immunologist. The doctor will assign a study of the child's immune status, on the basis of which he will receive very accurate information about exactly how the baby's organism reacts to this or that vaccine. Based on this research, the doctor will compile an individual vaccination calendar based on the individual characteristics of the organism of your crumbs. After all, as a rule, complications and side effects on this or that vaccine result from the fact that the child is hypersensitive to that or another component of a certain vaccine. And this means that the doctor will know exactly which vaccine will benefit the child, and which can cause complications.
Contraindications to vaccinations
There are several cases wherevaccination of a child is not only recommended, but strictly prohibited by pediatricians. Vaccination in these cases leads to the occurrence of severe complications. The following are contraindications to vaccinations:
- Any acute disease, whether it be bronchitis or a common cold.
- Any, even insignificant increase in body temperature, regardless of what caused it to increase.
- Dysbacteriosis in acute form.
- Critically low body weight and poor weight gain.
- Allergic reactions of any form of manifestation in acute form.
- Any pathology of the nervous system, including its physiological immaturity.
- Increased intracranial pressure in the baby.
- The upcoming radical changes in the life of crumbs are going to a kindergarten, a trip to a vacation or moving to a new place of residence.
- Vaccination against hepatitis is contraindicated in children who suffered food poisoning within two months prior to vaccination.
- Inoculation of akts contraindication has in the event that the child at the time of vaccination has ulcers and wounds on the skin.
In addition to the aforementioned series of acute conditionshealth crumbs there are a number of other contraindications. Previously, the list of diseases, in the presence of which doctors preferred a medical withdrawal from vaccinations, was quite impressive. However, recently, doctors are less likely to use medical taps from vaccinations. This is explained quite simply - as practice shows, in most cases, the lack of vaccination is much more dangerous for a child with chronic diseases than the infection of an unvaccinated child. In addition, in some cases, the reason for medotvod is not the disease itself, but obsolete stereotypes, for example:
- Chronic diseases, such as tuberculosis, HIV, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
For example, children suffering from diseasesrespiratory tract, very hard to tolerate measles, children with liver diseases - hepatitis, and children suffering from blood leukemia - chicken pox. For such children, the most common childhood illness can lead to grave consequences for children's health. For example, vaccination against hepatitis had contraindications earlier, but now it is done to almost all babies without exception. The vaccine against diphtheria has contraindications, of course, but it was she who saved the life not for one child. Vaccination against measles will help to protect the health of children who suffer from lung diseases - bronchitis, bronchial asthma.
- Cleaning technology
Pharmacology does not stand still - the level of vaccines cleaning is constantly increasing. And modern vaccines are of much better quality than, say, five years ago.
- Practical experience
As the practice of vaccinating children with certain health features shows, they do not have a much higher risk of complications than those who are completely healthy. Exceptions are childhood vaccinations up to a year.
Allergic reaction to vaccinations
Very many parents and doctors are afraidvaccination of children who suffer from various types of allergic diseases, whether it is atopic dermatitis or bronchial asthma. They explain this by the fact that these kids often develop severe recurrences of the disease after the introduction of the vaccine. In some cases, such complications, of course, take place. However, in most cases, their occurrence can be prevented by a very simple measure - just start giving your child antihistamines about three days before the expected date of vaccination. In addition, make sure that the child does not come into contact with possible allergens. Eliminate from his diet all foods that can cause the child's attacks of an allergic reaction - chicken, citrus fruits, tomatoes, semi-finished products and others. If the child has bronchial asthma, make sure that the child does not come into contact with pollen, animals and house dust, which also often causes allergic reactions.
Integrated administration of vaccines
Another issue that causes enormousthe number of heated debates is a complex vaccination. Comprehensive vaccination of doctors called the simultaneous introduction of several vaccines against various diseases. Many parents fear that such a procedure will put a significant strain on the child's immune system. However, in fact, this is not so. The human immune system consists of a huge number of cells. And in the event that several different vaccines are administered simultaneously, different groups of cells are activated. Thus, the development of immunity for all components of the vaccine, without causing harm to the health of the crumbs, will occur. It should be noted that a relatively small number of vaccines can be combined in a single syringe, so they are often done in different places. The only exceptions are factory complex vaccines. Also pay attention to the fact that if the vaccinations are not done in one day, then the interval between them should be at least three weeks. The only exception is vaccination against rabies and vaccination against tetanus, as delay in this case jeopardizes the health and life of the child.
Medical withdrawal from vaccinations
Also one can not ignore another importantThe question is who should give a medical withdrawal from vaccinations? Most often, such bends are given by narrow specialists who, due to chronic diseases, are registered with a child - allergists, pulmonologists, neuropathologists. And the pediatrician, without hesitation, signs this medical challenge. However, it is much more reasonable when a decision about a medical withdrawal from vaccination is made jointly by pediatricians, narrow specialists and parents. They should also make a calendar of childhood vaccinations.
Law and Immunizations
As mentioned above, the decision to vaccinatewhether the child has the right to accept only his family. From the legal point of view, all children, both grafted and unvaccinated, have absolutely equal constitutional rights. These rights also include the right to visit a kindergarten. However, this is only in theory, but in practice, when trying to give a child to a kindergarten parents have a huge number of complications and obstacles. And moreover, regardless of whether the child does not have vaccinations for medical reasons, or for the personal beliefs of his parents. The following are the main problems that you may encounter when installing into your child's kindergarten, if you have decided not to vaccinate him:
- Your attending physician - a pediatrician or a head of a polyclinic refuses to sign a medical card with the results of a medical examination, necessary for a kindergarten.
- A medical card without preventive vaccinations is not accepted by the head of the kindergarten.
- The local sanitary and epidemiological station prohibits the head of kindergartens from accepting children who do not have preventive vaccinations.
- You get a treasured ticket to a kindergarten, but as soon as you report it. That your child is not vaccinated, hear that places in kindergarten in the most incomprehensible and mysterious way end.
Why do such problems arise? Most likely, this is influenced by two factors: firstly, it is widely believed that those children, who for some reason did not pass the mandatory mandatory course of vaccination, are a source of increased danger to other babies. However, this is a rather controversial opinion. It turns out that if the risk of infecting other children is so great, that doctors are afraid of epidemics, then what is the point of doing vaccinations at all? Ask this question to the doctor or the manager - their reaction is rather ambiguous. And the second reason why doctors insist on conducting mandatory vaccination of all children is the so-called "vaccination coverage of the population". For the implementation of the vaccination rate, doctors receive a certain premium. And, unfortunately, very often medical workers resort to "dirty" ways, down to banal blackmail "If you do not vaccinate a child, the child will not get into kindergarten." As a rule, the heads of kindergartens try to maintain good relations with the clinic and therefore support pediatricians in everything.
Problems in the polyclinic
However, whatever the reasons were not forceddoctors act in a similar way, these actions are not only immoral. These actions are also absolutely illegal. In order to defend your rights and the rights of the child, before you go to the clinic for a medical report on the state of health and his medical card, which are necessary for the kindergarten, carefully prepare. Be sure to study 32 and 33 articles of the law of the Russian Federation on the protection of public health. №2 article says that any medical intervention in the human body is permissible only with the consent of the patient. And in the event that the patient is a minor, for the conduct of any medical manipulation, including vaccination, the consent of his parents or official guardians is necessary. That is, the widespread situation when a child in a kindergarten is vaccinated without asking parents' permission beforehand, and simply putting them before the fact is absolutely illegal. Article 33 of the same law states that any person has the right to refuse any medical intervention in his body. This also applies to preventive vaccinations. No one has the right to force you to do your child preventive vaccinations, if you do not want it. To ensure that in the future there were as few problems as possible, parents should not refuse vaccinations properly. The doctor should explain to you in detail what the procedure is for, and also describe in detail what can lead to the refusal of this procedure. After this, the parents must confirm in writing the refusal of the vaccination and the fact that they realize that they are fully responsible for the health of the baby. Also, information about this should be included in the child's medical record. Please note that there must be two signatures - the signature of one of the parents and the medical worker. The kindergarten does not have the right to refuse admission of children for the reason that they do not have vaccinations. The only exception to this is the situation when a mass epidemic of infectious diseases is officially declared in the city. However, note that this situation is temporary and remains only as long as the epidemic does not end. But even the vaccinated children are not accepted into the gardens during this period. In all other cases, 43 articles of the Constitution of the Russian Federation apply to the rules for admission of children to the kindergarten. According to this article, any child has the right to free and accessible preschool education in children's state educational institutions. And there is not a word said that children who for some reason did not pass the mandatory vaccination course are deprived of their legal rights. So, if your doctor categorically refuses to sign a medical report, despite all your arguments, safely write the official application addressed to the chief doctor of the polyclinic. Ask for the numbers and dates of signing the documents, which were the basis for refusing to sign your medical report. Be sure to inform the head doctor of the clinic in this statement that your next step will be an appeal to the prosecutor's office and the Health Department. As a rule, these measures are enough to overcome the resistance of doctors.
Problems in kindergarten
If you are faced with the fact that the managerthe kindergarten refuses to accept the card of the child signed by the manager, but without preventive vaccinations, you also need to write a claim to the city education department, detailing the essence of the problem. Be sure to ensure that your application has been formally accepted. In addition, you must receive a written response to your claim. If you hear that there are unexpected vacancies in the kindergarten, be sure to mention that Article 43 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation has not been terminated. And according to him your kid has the right to visit a kindergarten, if he needs it. If this measure does not help, write an application to the name of the head of the kindergarten, where you can specify where the place that was intended for your child happened, after it became known that your child has not made mandatory child vaccinations. Demand that the manager in writing notify you that there are no vacancies in the kindergarten. After she does it, it will be impossible to take any children into your age group into the kindergarten. Or the head of the kindergarten will be obliged to inform you that the place has been vacated. In the application, be sure to specify not only the exact home address, but also all possible telephones to protect yourself from excuses that you could not find. And remember the most important rule that will help you achieve your goal - to arrange a child in a kindergarten - in all disputes observe exceptional peace and courtesy. You are right - which means you need not be nervous. Your peace and knowledge of the laws will be sure to be noticed. As a rule, very few people solve their lives. We advise you to read: