Pregnancy is probably the most important anda crucial stage in the life of every woman. During these nine months of waiting for the birth of crumbs, the physical and psychological state of the woman is radically changing. However, very often the bright waiting time is overshadowed by such an unpleasant "trifle" as toxicosis. Some women take toxicosis during pregnancy as inevitable, while others try to fight their new, sometimes very unpleasant, condition. And what does the doctors say about this? In order to understand how to get rid of toxicosis and whether it is possible at all, it is necessary to know exactly what symptoms are typical for toxicosis, as well as the causes that cause it. Toxicosis is not only nausea, as people think. To signs of toxicosis also include such phenomena as:
- Decreased appetite. A woman can observe just a slight decrease in appetite, and may experience an uncontrollable aversion to food in general, or to some specific types of food.
- Increased salivation. Most often it occurs paroxysmal, in more rare cases - continuous.
- Inadequate reaction to habitual smells.
- Vomiting. Some women complain of single cases of vomiting in the morning, while others are tormented by indomitable vomiting all day and night.
- "Perversion" of appetite. A future mother can strongly want something from food, which before pregnancy could not eat at all. I would like to draw your attention to the readers: if a woman wants chalk, whitewash, chew rubber or foam sponge, if she is attracted by the smells of household chemicals, you should not write off this to the quirks of pregnant women. In 96% of cases, such desires indicate the presence of iron deficiency anemia in a woman.
- Low blood pressure. There is no definite bar on which to orient. A woman should be guided by the normal pressure for her, which was before pregnancy.
There are two types of toxicosis in pregnant women:
At the first signs of toxicosis duringPregnant women should inform the doctor about this - the gynecologist, from whom she is registered in pregnancy. In the same case, if a woman has not yet become registered, she should do it as quickly as possible.
Early toxicosis of pregnant women - causes
Even doctors have not yet concluded what thethe true causes of the onset of toxicosis and how much toxemia lasts in pregnant women is normal. One group of doctors believes that the chronic toxicity of the gastrointestinal tract is present in the wine of toxicosis, while others claim that toxicosis causes an overabundance of certain hormones, while others tend to believe that the reaction of the immune system of a woman, which reacts in this way to the development of the child and partly perceiving the fetus as a foreign body. Below, the field describes in detail all the scientific hypotheses existing on this score. Theory of the hormonal nature of toxicosis. It is well known that during pregnancy the body of a woman experiences a real hormonal storm. First and foremost, immediately after conception, the body of a woman rapidly increases the level of the hormone progesterone. Progesterone is produced by the so-called yellow body, which is formed instead of the follicle that burst during the ovulation. This hormone is designed to prepare the uterus for implantation of the fetal egg. In addition to the preparation of the uterus, this hormone is also responsible for the normal functioning of the nervous system, taking into account the new "pregnant" condition of the woman, also progesterone is responsible for the full preparation of the mammary glands for subsequent lactation. Also, the hormone prolactin can cause a depressed mood, headaches and other signs of toxicosis in pregnant women. The next hormone, whose level also increases many times in a pregnant woman is the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The action of this hormone is aimed at increasing the production of thyroid hormones, the level of which plays an extremely important role for the normal development of pregnancy. Another, less known, but no less important hormone is chorionic somatomamotropin. It is this hormone responsible for the growth of the breast, as a result of which it acquires a more rounded shape. The level of estrogen during pregnancy also increases rapidly, as they are produced by the placenta and the adrenal cortex of the baby. Estrogens promote normal body growth of the uterus, prevent the occurrence of edema and high blood pressure. Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids are hormones produced by the adrenal glands. Responsible for the suppression of maternal immunity, which will avoid rejection of the fetus by the female body. The placenta also produces so-called growth factors. They are necessary for the skin of the abdomen and chest to stretch in the process of growth. It is the lack of these growth factors that leads to the appearance of stretch marks. An increase in the level of these hormones occurs rapidly, a real hormonal attack literally falls on the female body. And not every female organism is able to reconstruct immediately and without side effects. It is this fact that some doctors call the main cause of toxicosis of pregnant women. The next reason, which, according to doctors, causes toxicosis, is the work of the immune system of the female body. According to this theory, nausea arises precisely because the female immune system perceives the developing fetus as something alien, because the baby's DNA also contains information about the father. After a while the maternal organism adapts and stops rejection of the fetus. And at that time, until this happened, a woman has toxicosis. Also very often the "merit" of the occurrence of toxicosis is attributed to the existing diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in the mother. This information can neither confirm nor disprove, since approximately 80% of the total adult population has various gastrointestinal diseases in their active state. There is another, extremely interesting, theory about the occurrence of toxicosis. Her supporters believe that all of the above causes of toxicosis of pregnant women are not so common, and the main is the psychological reason. In their opinion, the appearance of toxicosis is nothing more than the rejection of the fact of pregnancy by the woman herself. And this aversion can be at a subconscious level, a woman may not even guess about it. However, it is still worth trying to figure out if the woman has any hidden fears and fears.
- You may be disturbed by the relationship with your fatherchild. Most often, these fears persecute those women whose pregnancy was not planned. The best way is to talk, in most cases the doubts are groundless.
- The financial side. Very often the woman is worried about the family budget and the upcoming spending.
- Radical change of a way of life. It is very difficult for many women to get used to the cardinal changes in the way of their life that are inevitable.
- Break in his career. Many women are frightened by the fact that they will soon have to leave work. The future mummy should understand that this is a temporary phenomenon.
- Appearance. Some women are afraid of changes that occur with a pregnant and nursing mother. In fact, most women after the birth of a child look much better than before pregnancy. Such metamorphosis is a merit of hormones, in a large number of women present during pregnancy in the body.
- Experience of unsuccessful pregnancies. The woman is very afraid of the repetition of the tragedy, her emotional background is constantly in suspense.
- Steady stereotypes. Our body is quite easy to subject to psychological suggestion. If a woman thinks that nausea is the inevitable companion of pregnancy, it will be so. This often explains why pregnant women have toxicosis.
However, whatever the reasons for whyin pregnant toxicosis, there are a number of recommendations that can significantly alleviate the condition of a pregnant woman, and in some cases completely eliminate it. Prophylaxis of toxicosis must start in the morning. Do not jump from the bed at the first sounds of the alarm clock, even if you were capable of such a manly act before pregnancy. Be sure to lie down for a while. In the evening, prepare a light "snack" consisting of your favorite foods. It can be crackers, or nuts, or biscuits. Remember that nutrition of pregnant women with toxicosis is very important. It can improve the situation, but can significantly exacerbate it. Avoid overeating: take food in small portions, but often. Eliminate from your diet all fatty, smoked and simply heavy foods. Give your preference to foods high in protein and calcium. They not only help to keep your hair and nails in good condition, but also vital for the proper development of your baby. In no case do not eat dry-witted, this helps to increase the signs of toxicosis in pregnant women. The most reasonable to use liquid or semi-liquid dishes. After eating, do not allow physical exertion, rather try to lie down, or at least sit for about 20 minutes. There are several more secrets of "first aid" means:
- Take multivitamins for pregnant women with high content of selenium. This simple tool has helped to get rid of nausea to so many women.
- In case of nausea, do not eat with drinks at the same time.
- Also an excellent remedy for nausea isalkaline mineral water. Always have a small bottle with you, and at the first signs of an impending attack of nausea, take a few sips.
- A wonderful, time-tested, remedy fornausea - ordinary mint. You can come to the aid of mint candies or tea with mint. But the use of mint chewing gum gives an absolutely opposite effect - nausea can greatly increase.
- Another great tool whenbegins toxicosis in pregnant women, is a glass of water. The secret is that you must first dissolve a spoonful of honey and half a spoonful of apple cider vinegar. A glass drunk on an empty stomach will save you from nausea all day. However, unfortunately, this remedy can not be used for those women who have high acidity of gastric juice, which can be suspected by frequent attacks of heartburn.
- If you have seizuressalivation, you will help periodic mouthwash with infusions of herbs such as chamomile, sage or all the same mint. To make infusion, you will need dry grass from the calculation of 100 grams per liter of water. Boil water, then pour the grass, previously placed in an enamel tank. Leave for two hours, then strain using gauze.
- I would like to reiterate the important rolenutrition of pregnant women with toxicosis. Be sure to listen to your body, as a rule, he almost always tells you what exactly is necessary for him at the moment. Today it can be a couple of lemons, and tomorrow a kilogram of halva. Do not argue with him.
In addition, if you have an early toxicosis of pregnant womentreatment should not only be to adjust the diet. It is very important to reconsider your way of life. Be sure to leave bad habits, try to be as much as possible in the fresh air. Sleep at least 8 hours a day, in addition, try in the day also find time, at least for an hour's rest. Try to avoid overcrowded public transport, stuffy rooms, especially those in which smoked. Remember that passive smoking is even more harmful than active. Firstly, it will increase toxicosis several times, and secondly, it can lead to intrauterine hypoxia of the fetus. In especially severe cases, the treatment of toxicosis of pregnant women can be medicated. The most effective ways to combat toxemia in the early stages of pregnancy are described below, however, treatment should be carried out only for the intended purpose and under strict medical supervision.
- Intravenous infusions (droppers) of suchdrugs, such as saline or glucose with the addition of vitamin C. Usually prescribed with indomitable vomiting to purify the body of women from toxins and prevent dehydration.
- Also, women can be prescribed injections of cerucal preparations, splenin. In no case should the independent use of the above mentioned preparations be inadmissible.
- One of the newest methods of getting rid of the earlyToxicosis of pregnant women is a treatment called immunocytotherapy. The essence of this treatment is the introduction into the body of a pregnant woman the blood cells of the child's father. Before this treatment, a man must pass blood tests to conduct a laboratory test. Typically, a woman suffering from toxicosis, notes a significant improvement in the condition after only a day.
What is the risk of late toxicosis of pregnant women?
Unfortunately, the absence of toxicosis duringpregnancy in the first half can not give a 100% guarantee that the woman will not face a toxicosis later. In the second half of pregnancy a woman can face such an unpleasant and formidable complication as a toxicosis of the second half of pregnancy, in medicine bearing the name of gestosis. This disease is not so common - about 25% of all pregnant women, but to know the signs of late toxicosis of pregnant women still need every future mother. It is much easier to cure this disease at the very beginning, rather than in a "neglected" form. The most unpleasant thing is that the initial stage of gestosis is almost asymptomatic, so it is extremely important to visit a doctor regularly, and on time, to see a woman during pregnancy. Below are listed the main "satellites" of late pregnancy toxicosis:
- Hidden or obvious edema of soft tissues of a woman. When swelling occurs, do not try to correct the situation by correcting the drinking regimen, but immediately consult your doctor with a gynecologist.
- Increased blood pressure is also often a sign of gestosis and should in no case be left without due attention from the pregnant woman.
- Another, very reliable, sign of gestosis is the presence of protein in the urine. This again confirms the need for a systematic visit to the doctor.
During gestosis, the woman's body suffers greatly: there is an imbalance of water and salt metabolism, because of the increased permeability of the vessels, excess fluid enters the soft tissues and internal organs of the pregnant woman. As a result, there is a violation of blood circulation, which, in turn, causes a decrease in oxygen saturation of all tissues and internal organs. The fetus suffers most in this situation. As a result of deterioration of blood circulation in the mother's body, the placenta receives a much smaller amount of not only nutrients, but also oxygen, which threatens to result in hypoxia of the fetus. Hypoxia of the fetus has a very negative effect on the development of the fetus, especially strongly on the formation of the nervous system. It is very important to approach the issue of treatment of toxicosis of pregnant women, because, otherwise, there is a great chance of developing a very serious complication called eclampsia. Eclampsia can cause loss of consciousness, severe seizures, retinal detachment and placenta. In this case, doctors are forced to do an emergency cesarean section, despite the duration of pregnancy, since there is a real threat to life for the mother. Physicians identify several risk groups in which the chances of having a late toxicosis are slightly higher than those of other women. Those future mothers who fall into the risk group should double their attention to monitor their condition and at the slightest sign of trouble immediately seek medical help.
- Presence in the anamnesis of a life of abortions on any term of pregnancy.
- Small interval between births. Usually, less than two years.
- Age of the pregnant woman. A much higher chance of developing gestosis in young girls who have not reached the age of 18.
This is because their body is instage of growth and is not ready to fully cope with the stresses that pregnancy imposes on him. Also in this risk group are those women who have crossed the 35 year old age threshold. The aging process is already beginning in their reproductive system and in the body as a whole. Women who are in a chronic stressful condition. Stress is a problem not only psychological but also physical.
- Chronic fatigue also increases the risk of developing late toxicosis. In a state of chronic fatigue the body is not able to fully cope with their work.
- Poor uterine elongation in case of multiple pregnancies, or polyhydramnios.
- Existing hormonal disorders.
- Diseases of the cardiovascular system.
- Kidney diseases such as pyelonephritis and nephritis also increase the risk of developing toxicosis of the second half of pregnancy.
- Chronic hypertension.
- Any inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system, as well as cysts and fibroids.
In some cases, casesthe occurrence of toxicosis in absolutely healthy women, for which even a complete absence of toxicosis is typical during the first half of pregnancy, there is gestosis. As a rule, it occurs in the last month of pregnancy. The causes of toxicosis in such cases are very diverse:
- The most common cause is a violation of the adaptive mechanism
- Also, to provoke the development of gestosis may be an improper, poorly balanced diet of a pregnant woman.
- Violation of the usual routine of the day or lifestyle of the future mother.
- ARI, ARVI without appropriate treatment often leads to the development of late toxicosis of pregnancy.
I would like to recall once again howthere is toxicosis of the second half of pregnancy, so that women are always on the alert and did not miss the development of this terrible complication of the normal course of pregnancy. At the slightest hints the pregnant woman should urgently consult a doctor. The first sign that the expectant mother might suspect something wrong is the strongest thirst. A pregnant woman drinks a lot of fluids. And here urine with this much less quantity is allocated, than liquid is drunk. As a consequence, the fluid that has lingered in the body of a woman leads to the onset of edema. There are swelling due to the fact that the blood plasma, penetrating through the walls of blood vessels, accumulates in the soft tissues of the body. At the very beginning of the disease, foot swelling can occur. Often, edemas appear in the evening and disappear by morning. If the disease at this stage remains unnoticed, it begins to actively progress, in a pregnant woman, not only the legs begin to swell, but also the hands, especially the fingers. After a while, the face begins to swell. Periodic increase in arterial pressure is also a cause for anxiety, since most often it is caused by gestosis. Pressure rises to critical levels and it can not be reduced even with the help of pharmacological drugs. As mentioned earlier, the phenomenon of gestosis is characterized by a phenomenon such as the presence of protein in the urine. It appears because the walls of the vessels let not only the blood plasma causing the edema, but also the protein contained in the blood. As a result, the kidneys begin to remove proteins from the body of a pregnant woman.
Prevention of late gestosis
In order to reduce the likelihood oflate toxicosis, and in the event that it could not be avoided - the development of eclampsia, a woman must systematically visit her gynecologist and take all the tests necessary for laboratory tests.
- Constant strict control over the weight of a pregnant woman. Excess weight gain can occur as a result of the appearance of latent edema.
- No less strict control over the level of blood pressure, which is also a vital indicator.
- Periodically it is necessary to calculate daily diuresis. Diurnal diuresis is the ratio between a pregnant woman's fluid and the amount of urine.
- Laboratory tests of blood and urine. Control of urine will reveal the presence of protein in it, and blood control will help to avoid ignoring iron deficiency anemia.
- For an adequate and objective assessment of the statethe pregnant woman should undergo the ultrasound in the required time. With the signs of late toxicosis of pregnant women, as a rule, the future mother will be offered CTG or dopplerometry.
However, in some cases, even all these measuresprecautions do not help to guess about the pathological process taking place in the body. As a result, gestosis manifests itself very unexpectedly, and develops very quickly - sometimes for several hours. It is necessary, without delay, to call an ambulance in the event that the pregnant woman has the following symptoms:
- Sudden, but very significant increase in blood pressure to 160 digits per 100 or more.
- Ringing in the ears, the appearance before the eyes of black dots.
- Nausea, turning into indomitable vomiting.
- Painful sensation of any degree of intensity, localized in the upper abdomen.
There are several fairly simple methods,which can prevent the development of preeclampsia. Unfortunately, very often future mothers simply ignore these well-known things, exposing thereby the risk not only of their health, but also the health of the baby. The most important thing that should be paid attention to a woman is on her diet. Be sure to exclude from the diet chocolate, cocoa, coffee, all types of canned food, smoked, fatty and even more salty foods. Also, do not abuse bakery products. A woman should give her preference to vegetable salads dressed with vegetable oil, all sorts of cereals. As a drink you can recommend a wonderful decoction of their dried fruits, as well as cranberry and cowberry morsels. Also, you can use the ready-made syrups of chokeberry or wild rose sold in the pharmacy. In addition to benefits for the kidneys, they help get rid of avitaminosis. In addition, it is very important to ensure that the volume of liquid drunk per day does not exceed one and a half liters. Do not take pregnancy as a disease and spend all the time lying in bed. A healthy, moderately active lifestyle significantly reduces the chances of developing gestosis. Of course, do not go to conquer Mount Everest, but quiet hourly walks will go to the body and mother and baby, only to the benefit. Some women often ask themselves: how much should it last? It is very difficult to give an answer to this question - it depends on the combination of multiple factors and individual characteristics of the organism. Therefore, try to treat your toxicosis as a temporary phenomenon, which is only one more step on the way to your meeting with the baby. We advise you to read: