adherence to healthy microflora Feeling of the full value of life is possible only withgood health. It should be agreed that even the most frivolous diseases can spoil if not life, then well-being and mood - definitely. And women's health is so capricious that a slight malaise, for example, a violation of the vaginal microflora, can permanently knock us out of the habitual rhythm of life. Especially life intimate. If the microflora of the vagina is normal, then the woman is protected from a variety of inflammatory and even sexually transmitted diseases. When the microflora is broken, then the protection is weakened. It is necessary to determine what is the normal microflora of the vagina, what could be its violations, what kind of symptoms will prompt such violations.

When the microflora is normal

In our body, there are many "good"bacteria. This is a kind of symbiosis: we give them shelter, they also defend their "home". In newborn girls, the vagina is sterile. But already in the first minutes after the birth of a child is exposed to an attack of bacteria. They "colonize" the vaginal mucosa (and other organs too) and eventually form the same microflora. Note that the flora is unstable and varies throughout life. For the changeable state of the microflora "respond" polysaccharides present in the cells of bacteria. But the polysaccharides themselves are affected by female sex hormones. Therefore, normal changes in microflora are caused by hormonal irregularities: juvenile period, puberty, pregnancy and childbirth, sex life, menopause. So, for example, the flora of a newborn girl is dominated by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Then they become smaller and the flora becomes coccoid - it is populated with epidermal and saprophytic staphylococci. Normal vaginal microflora forms a special acidic environment, which performs 2 basic functions: protective and evolutionary.

  • The protective function consists in the destruction of this environment by all (or almost all) microorganisms causing various diseases and inflammatory processes.
  • Evolutionary function provides a healthy conception, since it destroys spermatozoa. Such a powerful protective barrier can overcome only the most healthy spermatozoa.
  • In its composition, the microflora of the vagina is divided into several degrees of purity:

    • medium acid reaction with a high level of lactic acid bacteria - lactobacillus (healthy environment);
    • medium weakly acid reaction with a small amount of lactobacilli and the presence of staphylococci, streptococci and leukocytes (healthy environment);
    • medium neutral or slightly alkaline reaction with a high level of cocci, leukocytes and a single presence of lactic acid bacteria (the presence of inflammation);
    • an alkaline reaction medium with a large number of bacteroides, cocci and leukocytes and the absence of lactobacilli (inflammatory processes).

    The last degree of purity of the vagina occurs due to disorders of microflora. causes of violation of the microflora of the vagina

    Violation of the normal microflora of the vagina

    Violation of the microflora of the vagina is calledvaginal dysbiosis or disbacteriosis. Such a violation is already a disease in itself. Another name is bacterial vaginosis. However, this term is only a partial violation of microflora. Often you can hear another name for this disease - thrush or candidiasis. And this term is not completely correct to denote a violation of microflora, since the disease is only a kind of violation of the flora. And these species are not so few. Infringements of a microflora arise practically at each woman during the different periods of her life. Such violations can lead to any impact on the female body. Usually the manifestations of dysbiosis are insignificant and sometimes even imperceptible. But serious violations can lead to dangerous inflammations, infections and relapses. What factors cause a violation of the vaginal flora?

  • Subcooling the body. Long exposure to cold, like a single strong supercooling, reduces immunity and affects the change in the vaginal flora.
  • Breaking the hormonal background or changing italso leads to changes in microflora and its disturbances. They can be caused by irregular sex life, malfunctions of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and childbirth, abortion, puberty or menopause.
  • Climate change. Dysbiosis can arise when moving to a different region or even during a tourist trip to countries with a warm climate.
  • Stressful situations or a depressed state.
  • Unregulated sex life and frequent change of partners, refusal to use contraceptives.
  • Incorrect use of tampons and pads during menstruation.
  • Therapeutic course with the use of antibiotics.
  • Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and pelvic organs.
  • Sex infections.
  • It should be noted that these factors do not always lead to violations, and even more so to diseases. Nevertheless, the first symptoms should be consulted by a doctor. examination with a gynecologist

    Symptoms and types of vaginal dysbiosis

    With vaginal dysbiosis, there is a violationnormal ratio of bacteria living on the mucous membrane of the vagina. In a balanced state, the normal microflora consists of 90% (approximately) lactobacilli, 9% are bifidobacteria and 1% are key cells (Mobiluncus bacteria, Gardnerella, leptotriks, Candida fungi and other microorganisms). The normal microflora is supported by the immune system. When it fails, the balance between the percentage of bacteria is disrupted, there is a quantitative imbalance, which leads to the development of dysbiosis. The most obvious symptoms of dysbiosis:

    • discomfort in the external genital area;
    • the appearance of excreta;
    • the appearance of an unpleasant odor.

    But, firstly, these symptoms canTo testify at all about a dysbacteriosis, and about other diseases. Secondly, the dysbacteriosis of the vagina can be even asymptomatic. Depending on which pathogenic bacteria prevail in the composition of the vaginal microflora, dysbiosis can occur in different forms. Here are the most common disorders of microflora (types of dysbiosis).

    • candidiasis (or thrush) (the most "light" kind of dysbiosis, this disease causes mushrooms of the genus Candida);
    • gardnerellez (this disease was given the name of the bacteria causing it gardnerelly, it is dangerous because it can cause inflammation of the vagina and cervix);
    • Leptotrichosis (considered one of the asymptomatic forms of vaginal dysbiosis, causes its leptotrix bacterium).

    Any kind of dysbacteriosis of the vagina is dangerous complications that manifest as inflammation of the vagina, bladder, cervix and uterus itself, as well as sexually transmitted infections.

    Treatment and prevention of dysbacteriosis of the vagina

    Violation of the microflora of the vagina entailsdevelopment of many diseases. Therefore, at the first symptoms of such a violation it is necessary to consult a doctor who will put an accurate diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment. Restoration of normal microflora takes place in three main stages:

  • elimination of bacteria (pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic and) that caused dysbiosis and inflammation;
  • restoration of the balance of "good" bacteria forming the microflora;
  • restoration of immunity.
  • In the infectious nature of disorders,course of treatment with antibiotics, during which the pathogen is completely eliminated. In the absence of sexual infections, treatment can be performed without prescribing antibacterial drugs. Therefore, medicinal products can not be chosen independently. In addition to antibiotics for the restoration of normal microflora antiseptics are used. Such drugs are used externally - by inserting tampons and taking vaginal baths. Before the start of treatment with antibiotics or simultaneously with it, a course of immunocorrection is performed. Recovery of normal vaginal microflora takes approximately 3-4 weeks. As a rule, in the treatment use tablets and vaginal suppositories. In addition, local antibacterial procedures (baths, tampons) are performed. At the end of the course of treatment it is necessary to conduct a control laboratory test, and then to be engaged in the prevention of dysbacteriosis. Prevention of vaginal dysbiosis is, above all, hygiene and immunity. After a course of recovery of the microflora of the vagina, it is necessary to visit the gynecologist at least 3 times a month to prevent relapse. With successful treatment and the absence of relapses, it only remains to maintain one's immune system, observe hygiene rules and lead a healthy lifestyle. Do not forget that the normal flora of the vagina is your protection against many diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to treat this problem with due attention. After all, women's health is very fragile. Take care of yourself, be healthy and happy!