Modern people appreciate the bonds of marriage not so much,as representatives of previous generations, and the relationship between a man and a woman became more complicated and complicated. Therefore, today, society is much less surprised by single mothers who raise a child without a husband. But from the fact that in the 21st century people do not pay so much attention to this, a woman does not find it easier to put her son or daughter on her own. On the contrary, it would even be useful for increased attention on the part of society, of course, manifested in tolerance, understanding and help. However, we can not assume that the state does not care about women who are raising children themselves. Each single mother is given certain rights, benefits, they are supposed to pay cash benefits. But it should be noted that not all women with children who live without a husband have the right to claim such help. You can become a loner by yourself and knowingly, but you need to confirm your status legally. Only after this can we expect to receive assistance from the state.
Who is a single mom: who can consider her
To understand what is expected of single mothers, you first need to understand who is assigned this status at the legal level. It is given to a woman:
- The person who gave birth outside of marriage (without marriage at all) or later than in 300 calendar days from the moment of his official termination.
- Not established legally (that is, voluntarily or in court) the paternity of the child
- Not married, but officially formalized adoption or adoption.
- Married (or at the time of up to 300 calendardays from the date of the divorce), but received a judicial decision that a man (former or even current spouse), recorded by the child's father, successfully challenged his paternity.
Of course, the legal interpretation of this statusthere are drawbacks. So, for example, if a woman's husband has died, she will not receive the rights of a single mother and the following help. Officially, she will be considered a widow and will not be able to enjoy a number of benefits, although she actually remained without a breadwinner (or at least a person contributing a substantial part of the money to the family budget) and is forced to raise her daughter or her son on their own. But let's get back to the rights of those who got this status legally.
What are the main benefits for a single mother
First of all, these are all the benefits that all newly mums receive:
- One-time, issued when a pregnant woman becomes registered in a medical institution (up to 94 days, that is, up to 12 weeks);
- on pregnancy and childbirth;
- One-time, issued on the fact of the birth of a child;
- monthly maternity leave;
- monthly, issued for the period of leave to care for the child (if at the time of his payment to his son or daughter is already 18 months old).
However, benefits for single mothers usuallymore in size (if you compare them with payments to ordinary moms). This is the concern of the state. At the same time, it should be noted that in the course of all the nuances of payment of benefits can be only social protection agencies, to which a single mother is attributed at the place of residence. Therefore, in each specific case, a woman needs to contact the appropriate authorities to clarify the details.
Benefits of subjects of the Russian Federation
It should also be borne in mind that varioussubjects of the Russian Federation can pay extra benefits to their mother with the legal status of a single person. Naturally, this is done with a view to socially support women who are raising their children on their own, and this is a commendable initiative. If we consider the situation in the general case, then in the laws of the majority of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation the right of a single mother to receive the following additional benefits is prescribed:
- monthly compensation - reimbursement of costs associated with raising the cost of living;
- assistance in kind, receiving various benefits for children who have not yet reached the age of 3;
- monthly compensation - reimbursement of costs associated with the increase in the price of children's food.
Separately it is necessary to note the tax deduction (forworking moms) for personal income tax: a woman gets it in double size from the standard, if the child's documents do not specify paternity. However, this can apply to any single parent (both biological and adoptive), as well as a trustee or guardian.
Additional benefits granted to single mothers in Moscow
Again, the size and conditions for issuing additionalmeans depend on the laws of a specific subject of the Russian Federation. If we talk about what to expect a single mother in Moscow, then at the expense of the capital budget for her provided "bonus" benefits. But you need to consider that they are related to the level of its earnings. So, if an independent woman raising a child receives an income that does not exceed the living wage established in Moscow (in terms of per capita), she is entitled:
- Monthly allowance provided in increasedsize. From 01 01 2012 its value is 1600 rubles (if the child is under 1.5 or 3 to 18 years old) or 3200 rubles (if the son or daughter is from 18 to 36 months old).
- Monthly compensation, reimbursing expenses,associated with an increase in the cost of living. It is issued if the child has not yet reached the age of 16 (if he is studying in a general education institution) or 18 years (if he implements general education programs). The amount of this compensation is 750 rubles.
- Monthly compensation, reimbursing costs,caused by the increase in the price of children's food. In this case, the amount of payments is 675 rubles and is issued until the child is 3 years old.
Please note for these benefitsa single mother must submit relevant applications to the social protection authorities. It is most convenient to do this only 3 months before the expected receipt of payments on the sick-list (or 3 months after). This is explained very simply: all benefits are considered income. And if together with them and with the salary mum "will type" a living wage, to it simply will not pay indemnifications. Another nuance is that a woman can receive these benefits, even if she marries. But at the same time it is necessary that her new spouse does not adopt (did not adopt) a child, because only in this case his income will not be taken into account when calculating the subsistence minimum for each member of the family. Additional benefits can be given to a single mother even when the average per capita income exceeds the established subsistence minimum. Simply in this case, the size of the payments will be smaller. Expenses for raising living standards are reimbursed for an amount of 300 rubles (monthly). True, compensation for food price increases remains unchanged and amounts to the same 675 rubles. Separately note that a single mother, recognized as an invalid of the I or II group and nowhere else working, is assigned an additional monthly allowance of 6,000 rubles. It is paid until the child living with the woman reaches the age of 18. If the mother is able to work, but her son or daughter is a disabled child, the same allowance is issued until he (her) is 23 years old.
Benefits put by a single mother
One should not forget that any single mother withany level of life and income should receive allowances for the allowances given to it. So, while her child has not turned one and a half years old, the state is obliged to pay a certain additional sum every month (its size depends on the laws of a specific subject of the Russian Federation). There is also an annual additional material aid of 300 rubles. Yes, for 12 months this is quite a ridiculous amount, but it must also be issued without fail. Let's move on to labor benefits:
- Administration of any enterprise, regardless ofits organizational and legal form, can not, on its own initiative, dismiss a single mother. Such a woman is supposed to preserve the workplace, at least until her son or daughter reaches the age of 14 years. The only exception is the liquidation of the enterprise. But in this case, the leadership of the organization is obliged to find a new mother for a single mother. And with the preservation of her specialty and position.
- If the company's management hired independentlyraising a child by contract, and the term of its operation has come to an end, it is obliged to employ its employee. At the same time, while a new job is being searched for, a single mother is required to pay an average salary. However, no longer than 3 months from the calendar day of the end of the contract.
- When a single mother receives a sick leave sheet forcare for his son (daughter) under the age of 14 years, he must pay a hundred percent. In addition, it must be issued for a longer period than in standard situations.
- A single mother is entitled to an additional 14-dayleave at her expense, and take his woman can at any time suitable for him, as by attaching it to the main, so taking advantage of them separately. Naturally, she needs to warn the company's management in advance that she needs these two weeks, and let me know when they need her.
- No employer has the right to refusea woman in admission to the state, remove her from office, reduce her salary only because she is a single mother. If the head of the enterprise does not employ the mother who submitted the application to him, he must inform the reason for his decision, and in writing. This "explanatory" is a full-fledged document that can be brought to court for appeal.
Nuances of labor benefits of a single mother
There are a number of features of laborCode of the RF, about which many single mothers do not even know. Meanwhile, these nuances were created to make life easier for a woman who independently brings up a child. Therefore, we want to introduce them to you so that you can arm yourself with the knowledge of the Russian Federation TC. So, every single mother needs to understand that during the inpatient treatment, she is given increased benefits. In the first 10 calendar days of stay in a medical institution, their size depends on the length of service the woman has. After starting from the 11th day, 50% of the salary of the mother is paid. In this case, if the son or daughter of preschool age, a woman receives benefits during the entire period of treatment. If the child is 7-15 years old, payments are made only in the first 15 days. The Labor Code of the Russian Federation protects a single mother, helping her to preserve her workplace. Pay attention, a woman who brings up her own child can not be dismissed not only because of staff reduction, inconsistency of the position held or simply on the initiative of the leadership. It is also protected when the owner of an enterprise changes. She is not threatened with dismissal even if the director, chief accountant or other responsible person made a gross mistake, and this resulted in significant damage to the property of the firm. Their additional leave in 14 days single mothers can use not only at any time of year (having agreed this moment with the authorities), but also not completely, but in parts. As you know, it is not necessary to attach these "bonus" days to the main ones. But to postpone the next year their additional leave of the mother can not (if the collective agreement stipulates the guarantee of his annual provision). If a woman alone brings up a disabled child, she is given four more days off, of course, paid.
Social benefits for a single mother
- If a single mother needs housing, she claims it as a priority.
- A woman raising a minor son(daughter) independently, has the right to arrange it (her) in any children's institution (except for private). At the same time, the state is obliged to fully provide for the child.
- If a single mother brings up a schoolboy, hecan be provided free meals in the dining room, he can receive free textbooks. We write "can", not "should" because everything depends on the director of the educational institution: it is he who decides whether to grant such benefits or not.
- A single mother has the right to purchase a groupmedicines (required to be available in any city children's polyclinic) at a discount of up to 50%, depending on the drug. It is noteworthy that such a privilege extends not only to cheap, but also to rather expensive medicines.
- If the state polyclinic has a massage room, a single mother's child can use his services for free. Whereas an ordinary family can count on a 50% discount.
- At least once every two years, the childa single mother is entitled to a health camp or a sanatorium. Moreover, it should be provided free of charge or, at the most, with insignificant surcharges - in the prefecture or other territorial administration.
- At fairs and other sales of children's clothing andother things a single mother has the right to a significant discount. And similar events should be regularly held in the same territorial offices.
What are the benefits of the Tax and Housing Codes: nuances
Above we wrote about a double tax deduction forNDFL, up-to-date, until the child of a single mother turned 18 years old. However, it is possible only if the woman is not married. The Tax Code of the Russian Federation treats the status of a single mother in its own way - this need to be taken into account. If the mother marries and her spouse adopts adoption, she will no longer be able to use this benefit - she will only rely on the standard deduction. Of course, the Tax Code needs to be finalized in terms of protecting women raising a child on their own, but he also takes into account the rights of single people more than the Housing one. Actually, the latter does not provide virtually any benefits. According to him, a single mother has almost the same rights as an ordinary full family. Yes, it is the first in the queue for housing, but only if it needs to improve housing conditions, and this still needs to be proved. But not everything is so bad: the main thing is that there are benefits and benefits. Of course, in our time, any single mother is very difficult to put the child on its feet, to have time to work and in education, to build a career and build a personal life. But it is good that the state still does not leave such women without support, that it adopts new laws, amends, revises the terms of payments. This allows us to hope that in the future, single mothers will receive more and more benefits, which will be easier for them in the upbringing of their sons and daughters. We advise you to read: