Unfortunately, people regularly facevarious diseases, sometimes quite serious. One of these diseases is the intestinal obstruction. Very many believe that acute intestinal obstruction is a purely childish disease. However, in fact, this is not the case at all - in adults, the intestinal obstruction appears at least as often. Doctors call intestinal obstruction that pathological process, against which there is a blockage of the intestine by foreign bodies, paralysis of the intestine or its curvature. Such a state is extremely dangerous for human life. Therefore, it requires immediate medical intervention, as a rule, in all cases of surgery. Intestinal obstruction varies in several types. So, for example, according to the type of emergence doctors distinguish two forms of the disease:
In addition, the obstruction of the intestine happensacute, chronic or recurrent. Also, intestinal obstruction can be congenital or acquired. With congenital obstruction the child has congenital malformations of the intestine, which can make themselves felt immediately after the birth of the child, and much later, already in an adult. It all depends on the individual characteristics of the situation. And all those kinds of intestinal obstruction, which arise under the influence of all other factors, are considered acquired, belong to the group of acquired. It is only the doctor who can determine the exact type and type of intestinal obstruction.
Symptoms of development of intestinal obstruction
As mentioned above, the intestinal obstructionrepresents a very serious danger to human health and even life. Therefore, it is so important to seek medical help in a timely manner in order to prevent the development of even greater complications. For this, it is necessary to know the basic symptoms of intestinal obstruction. Of course, these symptoms in different people can be different, noted as all at once, and only some of them. However, the intestinal obstruction symptoms are still quite typical:
- Cramping abdominal pain
Painful sensations can be strong enough,not passing for several hours. Very often these pains do not have a clear localization - a person can not say exactly where his stomach hurts. Strictly speaking, the pain in the abdomen, whatever it is caused, deserves the closest attention and immediate medical examination. After all, there is a huge number of various diseases, sometimes quite serious, for which pain in the abdomen is typical.
- Constipation and bloating
In the event that a person has constipation, a stoolmissing more than two days, the stomach is puffed up and gas formation is increased, there is a serious reason to be worried. The doctor may suspect that the patient has an intestinal obstruction.
- Vomiting and strengthened intestinal peristalsis
In the event that a person has developedan obstruction of an intestine, he can test strong sensation of a nausea. The emergence of exhausting vomiting is also very likely, and the peristalsis of the intestine can be strong enough for some types of intestinal obstruction. Of course, many other diseases have exactly the same symptoms, but absolutely nothing to risk their own health and take a wait-and-see attitude. Symptoms can disappear on their own, and can lead to the most unfortunate consequences, so it is wiser to seek medical help as soon as possible.
Causes of development of intestinal obstruction
Causes of development of intestinalthere is also a lot of obstruction. In order to help a sick person, a doctor must accurately establish the reason for the development of intestinal obstruction. However, it is necessary for a common man in the street to know these reasons, in order to be particularly attentive to his health in the event that they fall into the group at increased risk of developing intestinal obstruction. It is about these causes of the development of the disease and will be discussed below: Congenital risk factors: Strictly speaking, there are not so many congenital causes of intestinal obstruction. One of such reasons can be such an individual feature as a megacolon. In such people, certain areas of the intestine are longer than the norm. And as a result, the risk of developing intestinal obstruction increases at times. In addition, in some people there is an abnormal development of the intestine, in which its turn is incomplete. In such people, the risk of developing an intestinal obstruction reaches about 70%. In the event that during the ultrasound examination the child will be diagnosed with such a pathology, parents should carefully monitor the health of their child. Incidentally, very often the cause of the birth of children is a genetic predisposition. Also, special attention is required by those children whose close relatives had an intestinal obstruction. Acquired factors: Much more often the reasons for the development of intestinal obstruction are acquired factors. Such factors may be adhesive processes in the peritoneum. And it does not matter at all, as a result of what diseases these spikes were formed. Also, intestinal obstruction is caused by various neoplasms in the abdominal cavity or in the intestines, both benign and malignant. As the growth grows, the lumen of the intestine can overlap, as a result, if the tumor is not eliminated in a timely manner, sooner or later the intestinal obstruction will develop. Also, there is often enough obstruction of the intestine, which has arisen due to blockage of the intestine by a foreign body. Most often, doctors diagnose this kind of intestinal obstruction in young children, who are in the habit of dragging everything in the mouth. Often, the cause of an ailment can be a coin, or torn from the toy eyes, swallowed baby. In addition, in the event that a person suffers from helminthic invasions, especially those in a neglected stage, he may also develop an intestinal obstruction. Parasites can curl up and clog the lumen of the rectum. Also, the lumen of the rectum can be clogged with a stone, in the event that the sick person suffers from cholelithiasis. Different types of hernia, located on the abdominal wall, can also provoke the development of intestinal obstruction. There is it as follows - the site of the intestine is pinched by a hernia. In the event that a person suffers from a hernia of the abdominal wall, he should be especially attentive to his health and at the very first signs of intestinal obstruction, seek medical help as soon as possible.
Diagnosis of intestinal obstruction
In order for the doctor to fullya sick person all the necessary help, he must accurately diagnose the disease so as not to confuse the intestinal obstruction with any other ailment. To diagnose intestinal obstruction, the doctor will perform a series of examinations and tests that either confirm the diagnosis or disprove it.
- X-ray examination
This type of research is the following -In the intestine of a sick person, a special contrast agent is introduced. After this, an X-ray photograph is taken, on the basis of which the doctor will determine if the intestinal permeability is broken, and if so - in what area.
- Blood test
Another mandatory stage in diagnosisintestinal obstruction is a laboratory study of the blood of a sick person. Based on the blood test results, the doctor will determine whether the patient has an intoxication of the body, inflammatory processes, and what is his overall health status.
Also not the last value in the correctultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity organs is used to diagnose intestinal obstruction. Some types of intestinal need can be established only in this way.
Treatment of intestinal obstruction
After the doctors are convinced that they arethey are dealing with the intestinal obstruction, the immediate treatment of this disease will be started. Depending on the type of intestinal obstruction, the doctor chooses the necessary treatment tactics. Conservative treatment is as follows. A two-sided Novocain blockade is performed for a sick person. After that, they put a siphon enema. By the way, the siphon enema has not only therapeutic, but also diagnostic value. In the event that it does not have the proper effect, doctors resort to other methods of treatment. In the same case, if a person begins to leak gases and feces, doctors consider the siphon enema to be successful. So, the doctors go to the next stage of treatment - washing the stomach. For this purpose, a special probe is used, by means of which water for rinsing is introduced into the stomach cavity. Also, general therapy is conducted to support the body of a sick person. He is injected with sodium chloride, glucose solution and some other drugs designed to support the work of the heart muscle. Similar drugs should be prescribed by a cardiologist. As a rule, conservative treatment is successful only if the intestinal obstruction has a spastic form of origin. In all other cases, doctors resort to surgical intervention to eliminate intestinal obstruction. Before the operation of a sick person, doctors should properly prepare. Gastric lavage is necessary to prevent possible vomiting, often occurring as a reaction to drugs used for anesthesia. In addition, if necessary, the doctor normalizes excessively high or, conversely, low blood pressure in a sick person. Describe the process of the operation itself does not make sense, since this information will be understood only by surgeons. The only thing I would like to draw the attention of readers: of course, any surgical intervention is extremely unpleasant and undesirable. But remember that doctors resort to it only in the most extreme cases, when there is simply no other method of treatment. Do not give up the operation - do it all the same, and time in this situation, alas, plays against the sick person. Therefore, do not waste time - because the faster the surgical procedure is performed, the less negative consequences will be for the health of the sick person. And the operation itself does not pose any threat to the health and life of a sick person - any surgeon can easily cope with its conduct. After the operation, the sick person must strictly observe all the prescriptions and recommendations of the doctor - only in this case the recovery will be complete. And the acute intestinal obstruction will never become your acute problem again! We advise you to read: