An infection that can be in a sleeping forma very long time in the human body, and with a decrease in its protective functions to activate as a rash, called herpes. Modern medicine distinguishes between two types of virus: HSV-1 and HSV-2. But at the moment his diagnosis and treatment has serious problems, since the natural predisposition of the virus to the mutation complicates its definition. A qualitative approach to analyzing the results of scientific research and the lack of a generally accepted diagnostic system significantly hinders development in this area.
Cause of infection
Separation between the two types of virus is sufficientconditional, as in its diagnosis, a mixed type is often observed. The first type of infection (HSV-1) includes the damage to skin areas on the face and upper limbs. The second type (HSV-2) is characterized by the appearance of rashes on the skin areas in the genital area. Once injected through the skin or mucous membrane into the nerve nodes (ganglia), the virus remains in them forever. When there is a favorable background associated with a decrease in the resistance to infections of all kinds, it reveals itself in an explicit form. The existence within the cell provides it with all the necessary resources and components for active reproduction. At the same time, he subordinates all the synthesizing systems of the cell, forcing it to produce substances for the construction of new forms of the virus. The causes of herpes on the lips are different. Very often primary infection occurs by contact, which can be direct, airborne or through household items and hygiene (common towels, dishes, things). In addition, it is not uncommon for intrauterine infection of the fetus with the herpes virus from the mother. The main factors of appearance:
- Subcooling or strong overheating of the body
- Long time in the sun
- Somatic diseases (flu, cold, diabetes)
- General body fatigue
- Depletion of the body against a background of prolonged illness or strict diets
- Critical days
Clinical picture of the onset of herpes
After waking up the virus along the outgoing nervestrigeminal plexus is sent to the lips, oral mucosa or other organs, where the nerve processes terminate. After infection, the incubation period of its manifestation in the form of rashes is up to 21 days. In its development, simple herpes is 4 phases. The first stage. At this point, the state of health of both the primary infected and the permanent carrier of the virus deteriorates sharply. There is weakness, chills, drowsiness, fever and pain in the muscles. In places where the virus should appear (the skin in the corners of the mouth, the inner surface and the red borders of the lips, the wings of the nose, nasolabial folds, cheeks), often begins to itch. The main precursors of the onset of infection are reddening of the skin at the site of the future relapse, pain and itching. The second stage. Further on the skin begin to appear small painful vesicles - vesicles filled with a turbid liquid. With further development of infection, they increase in size. If treatment at this stage is not defined, then herpes tends to further damage the skin. The third stage. The vesicle bursts as much as possible, and a colorless, cloudy liquid appears in the surface, containing billions of viral particles. At this point, the carrier of the virus is extremely dangerous, since infection can occur through the release of a large number of herpes cells into the environment. In this case the patient has unpleasant sensations in ulcerated places. The fourth stage. At this stage, the erosion areas are covered with a crust, their drying takes place, further healing and disappearance. To accelerate this stage, special treatment is also required. The occurrence of a viral infection of herpes simplex is sometimes accompanied by complications. The most severe in this case may be an inflammation of the meninges. With the course of the disease in a mild form, the rashes last up to 2 ... 3 weeks. Return of relapses with reduced immunity is from 3 to 6 times a year.
Diagnosis of herpesvirus infection
The diagnosis usually takes place on the basis ofcomplaints and external examination of the patient, taking into account laboratory tests. Since the virus is prone to atypical asymptomatic flow, it is laboratory methods that are crucial in the diagnosis of herpetic infection. Currently, it is carried out in the following areas:
- Virological method
- DNA Diagnostics
- Immunofluorescence method
- Cytological method
Virological method. To perform this analysis, you will need to have the contents of the vesicle or a deep scraping of erosion, mucous membranes. The resulting virus isolation material is placed on the growing chorionellantoid envelope of a 12-day-old chicken or rabbit embryo, a monkey kidney tissue or human fibroblast. After 2-3 days with a positive reaction, one can observe the appearance of cytopathic changes characteristic of infection. The final identification of the virus is carried out by neutralization reaction in chick embryos, mice or cell cultures through the administration of antiherpetic immune sera. DNA diagnostics. To determine the presence of the virus, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used. This method helps to identify the infection only at the time of occurrence and to find out what kind of infection is present in the body. For this, the material is taken for analysis with a special brush from erosion areas. Serodiagnosis. The method is based on the detection of specific antibodies to the cells of the virus that are in the blood serum. The appearance of antibodies in the blood is 4 ... 7 days after the initial infection, the maximum number of them reaches 2 ... 3 weeks, and this amount persists for life. In order to distinguish the primary episode from relapse, it is very important to know the increase in antibodies, so the patient donates blood from the vein for the determination of antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2. The presence of IgG antibodies in the test material is recurrent, and the IgM antibody test indicates that this is the primary episode. Immunofluorescent method involves the determination of the nature and quantity of antibodies, the intensity and the region of specific luminescence in the material under investigation. To get such material, you need to take smears, and then dry them in acetone. The analysis of the study is carried out under a luminescent microscope, first applying a water or oil immersion to the dried material and pretreating with a fluorescent preparation. The analysis will be positive if there are at least three morphologically unchanged epithelial cells that have a specific fluorescent coloring and a localization typical of the virus in the nucleus. Cytological method. The most accessible and technically uncomplicated is a method that helps to identify morphological disturbances in infected cells. Its effectiveness is 75% and is more effective than virological analysis. For this, smears are stained using the Romanovsky-Giemsa or Unna method, after which morphological changes in the cells are visible.
Treatment of herpes simplex on the lips
Treatment of a periodically appearing simpleHerpes consists in immunorehabilitation of the patient, which reduces relapse and leads to a stable remission. However, monotherapy, which includes taking medications and ointments, creates a vicious circle, and stressful situations only worsen the condition. Therefore, only complex treatment will allow for a short period to stop the process and stabilize the patient's condition. First of all, herpes treatment has five main directions:
After the affected skin appearedsite, you need to undergo a course of suppressors: Acyclovir, Valtrex, the duration of which is 5 ... 7 days, which dramatically reduces the number of viruses in the body. Simultaneously with taking medications for qualitative treatment, 5% of acyclovir ointment should be used for affected sites for at least 5 times at least 5 times. Further treatment will be aimed at strengthening the immune system and consists of the administration of immunotherapeutic drugs (ridostin, cycloferon, lycopide). The duration of the medication depends on the patient's condition and the severity of the infection. In special cases, the treatment is carried out with alpha interferon with a daily dose of 2,000,000 IU twice a day. In severe forms of herpes on the lips it is worth considering about vaccination. Two months after the complex treatment is completed, intradermal administration of the herpetic vaccine is possible. To achieve a stable remission, it will be necessary to select an individual scheme that will include the amount of a single dose and the frequency of its administration. Preventive measures of herpes simplex consist of simple recommendations, which will not make any special difficulties:
- To avoid infection with the herpes virus will help personal hygiene, which includes hand washing and the use of individual items of everyday life.
- Try to avoid contact with a person who has external manifestations of herpes.
- Strengthening the immune system.
- Refuse to drink alcohol, coffee and smoking.