Harm and benefit of diets Not so long ago the Israeli mass mediainformation reported a tragic case: a thirty-year-old woman weighing 120 kilograms, for a long time sat on a very strict diet, achieved significant weight loss and died of cardiac arrest. Therapeutic diet or diet is the oldest way to get rid of diseases, used by people. Even several millennia ago, people knew that the diet of a person and the state of health are interrelated. But any medicine needs to be used competently. Otherwise, troubles can not be avoided.

Fuel for the body

Reducing the caloric content and volume of the diet givespossibility even for a couple of days. The famous ballerina Maya Plisetskaya likes to say that "during the siege in Leningrad everyone was very slender." However, the blockade could not boast of strong health. Even a few dozen years after the end of the war, they were distinguished by a bad condition of the skin, hair. So how to choose a really useful diet, how long can it be adhered to not to break the delicate balance in the body? Food for the body is the same as fuel for the machine. In order for the engine to work, it is necessary to pour in a sufficient amount of gasoline, that is, nutrient components that will be converted into energy. When the "fuel" is too much, it is stored in the form of fat. When it is not enough, the body seizes these fatty deposits and recycles them into energy. Here comes the process of losing weight. However, if the organism is deprived of food for a very long period, it does not stop the process of digesting its reserves. Food is not so needed, so the digestive tract does not digest it, such a person can die if doctors do not interfere in time. If there is more food than the body needs, the body becomes larger and energy for its "content" is also needed more. Therefore, the appetite increases, more fat enters the depot.

What does the diet consist of?

The main nutritional components of the dietare fats, proteins and carbohydrates. In addition, the body needs and in mineral salts, as well as vitamins - they trigger many metabolic reactions, the reaction of defense mechanisms. Fats from plants are more likely to be processed by the body, with digestion of fish fats the body less accumulates fat cells, protein from animal food is more valuable than from plants, sugar is processed more than whole-grain foods. To competently make up a diet, you need to study not only the caloric content of foods. It is necessary to understand the chemical composition of food. For example, in 200 ml of sweet soda there is only chemistry and sugar, in the same quantity of curdled milk there are proteins, calcium, fat, useful microorganisms, in juice - fruit sugars and vitamins, and in cocoa - sugars, lipids, vitamins and substances that improve mood . The amount of nutrients that the body needs can vary depending on many factors: sex, age, the presence of diseases, the temperature on the street. So, before the cold season, the body tries to make reserves, in winter it consumes less, and with the onset of sunny days it is easier to part with them. During the gestation, breastfeeding, puberty, the body requires more energy. The same situation is with people engaged in sports or hard work. The diet should be more caloric. In the elderly age, when metabolic processes are slow, and also with a sedentary lifestyle, the calorie content of food should be lower. That's why so many different factors affect the diet. The menu should be changed even with a long trip to distant countries or at the onset of winter. Experts believe that an adult who does not suffer from a person with moderate physical activity needs 80 to 130 grams. protein, from 330 to 440 grams. carbohydrates and at 1.3 gr. lipids per kilogram of body weight per day. Experts from the World Health Organization believe that to maintain health in the daily diet should be introduced from 400 to 500 grams. fresh fruits and vegetables. In order to calculate your weight (for an adult), you should measure the height in centimeters and subtract 100 or 110. When the mass is less than 10% of the norm, the diagnosis is "body mass deficiency". When 10% more, the diagnosis is "excess body weight". If the weight is more or less than the norm for a fifth, the diagnosis is "dystrophy" or "obesity." In order to maintain a healthy weight at the optimal level, you should calculate the caloric content of the diet and optimize it. For a 30-year-old representative of a stronger sex working in the office, there are enough 2,800 calories per day for the fairer sex 2400. And to lose half a kilo, you need to "burn" 3,500 calories. To understand how much this is: for 60 minutes of skiing 900 calories are burned, active water activities - 720 calories, quiet walking - 360 calories. Harm and benefit of diets

To deprive yourself of food is necessary according to the rules

If a person wants to lose weight, but at the same time stayhealthy, its diet should be adjusted for all nutrients. It should contain enough proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. About two thirds of the diet should be fruits, nuts, vegetables, meat, fish, milk fermentation products, cereals. However, for people who work at the plant, they breastfeed children, tomatoes grow in the garden, the standards are very different. Intensive intellectual activity in the diet should be more vitamins and carbohydrates, with physical - more proteins, and if a person does not really strain, then you need to reduce the number of calories. Of course, in the diet of a person who is watching his weight and who wants to lose weight, there should not be fatty, sweet food, fried, and fast food. A very good diet is a vegetarian table with milk and eggs, seafood. It is quite humane and well thought out. It has enough nutrients. You can adhere to separate food. With this technique, bread, meat and fruits are used in different meals. If we talk about fractional nutrition - in 5 - 6 receptions per day, then it is quite genetically conditioned. After all, in prehistoric times, no one adhered to a clear three meals a day. Reducing the nutritional value of the diet by ten to twenty percent, while maintaining a variety of food and sufficient physical exertion, is a very correct approach to normalizing body weight. Only a few months will be enough to experience the result. It is quite acceptable and unloading mono-diet for a couple of days. But such diets should be adhered to no more than 2 days a week. It is better to choose a warm season for unloading. And individuals with gastrointestinal diseases from mono diets should be discarded. If you completely abstain from carbohydrates and fats, change the scheme of food intake, then the weight can go away quickly enough. After all, the body falls into a stressful situation and begins to urgently spend the deferred "for a rainy day." Sometimes, if you are healthy and young, such stresses are very useful. As a proof of this, we can recall the diet of athletes in front of responsible games. However, with such "posts" chronic diseases can become aggravated, and also new ones may appear. If the diet is completely made up of raw vegetables and fruits, it threatens with bloating and diarrhea. If from proteins, then the kidneys suffer. And if you eat only nuts and mushrooms, then the liver suffers. When you drink orange juice or grapefruit on an empty stomach, bile is rapidly released. If the diet lacks lipids, avitaminosis and weakness may develop. If you completely abandon the sugars, you can provoke the development of diabetes (if there is a predisposition). During starvation, all chronic ailments are necessarily exacerbated. Many people mention an increase in energy and activity during fasting. This is a consequence of the increase in the level of the hormone of joy - endorphin. Thus, the brain protects the body from the discomfort and stress caused by starvation. However, one should know that short starvation can not cause significant harm to the body. Before starting a long diet, you should always consult your doctor. If during the diet the state of health worsened - this is the reason for a return to the usual diet.

Beware of anorexia!

The ration of soldiers of the Japanese army in the nineteenthThe century consisted mostly of rice. Therefore, they were lean and all were sick with a disease called "take-take", in which paralysis and polyneuritis develop. By the end of the century, doctors were required to introduce vegetables, meat, fruits and bread on the soldiers' menu. A year later, no one remembered the disease. Just before, the soldiers lacked vitamin B1 in their ration. If the diet is not balanced for the main nutrients (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals) and lasts for more than 14 days, it can cause one of the diseases that were previously called "poor diseases" - scurvy, pellagra or night blindness. However, this is not the worst thing. After 15 to 20 days after the start of the diet, the metabolism is rearranged, the amount of fat on the sides decreases, which is very encouraging for some. They want to stick to a new diet longer and longer. There is something like a drug addiction. And if in time not to start treatment with a specialist, losing weight can go to the stage of anorexia, and this is already a deadly disease. One of the most well-known and poorly balanced diets is the diet of Dr. Atkins. In the menu there are no vegetables, fruits, potatoes, bread, grains. The diet is based on animal fats, which causes the development of atherosclerosis, the lack of plant food leads to an increase in the body of free radicals, and a large number of proteins leads to constipation, kidney disease, liver, gall bladder. And in the end it is necessary to point out once again that obesity (an increase in body weight by 15 parts in comparison with the norm) is a disease. Therefore, do not self-medicate. People suffering from severe degrees of obesity need to lose weight under the guidance of a doctor. We advise you to read: