The first trimester of pregnancy is countedfrom the first day of the last monthly to 12 weeks gestation of the fetus. This period is very difficult for a woman, as it is filled with new and not always pleasant feelings for her, associated with well-being and changes in appearance. But at the same time, the first months of pregnancy - amazing, because within the female body is the birth of a new life. Week after week, month after month, the future person will grow and develop in the mother's womb, and 9 months after conception, he will notify the whole world of his appearance with a loud cry.
Development of a child before the 12th week of pregnancy
Pregnancy comes after the confluence of femaleovules with male sperm. The fertilized egg begins to wander through the fallopian tube, and only after a week (and in some cases later) it reaches the uterus and reliably penetrates into its wall. From this moment the placenta is formed and the intensive development of the embryo begins. By the end of the 4th week of pregnancy, the embryo is already in full swing forming the nervous, digestive and circulatory system, there is a chord, spinal cord and brain, sex glands, rudiments of the legs and handles are formed. During this period, the main hormone of pregnancy - a chorionic gonadotropin - is actively produced in the body of the woman, it can be determined through a pregnancy test and a blood test for hCG. By the 6th week, the embryo has kidneys and liver, the small heart makes its first attempts at contraction. At the 8th week of pregnancy, the baby is formed eye grooves, ears and gums. After another 7 days, the baby has a tiny nose. The dimensions of his head are several times higher than the size of the entire body. At the end of the first trimester the baby has already formed all the organs, in the future they will continue to develop. However, the embryo floating in the amniotic fluid, barely reaches 6 cm in length.
The main symptoms of pregnancy in the first trimester
The main symptom that marks a pregnancy -delay of menstruation. After they have not arrived at the appointed time, a woman who lives sexually should get a pregnancy test in a pharmacy. All tests work on the same principle: they determine the level of chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the urine. The study is most desirable to spend in the morning, when the concentration of the hormone is the highest. The woman should collect the urine in a clean container and lower it there for 20 seconds. test tape. The final result will be known in 5 minutes. If there are 2 strips on the surface of the test, then the probability of pregnancy is 99%. In the first trimester of pregnancy a woman begins to experience all the "charms" of her interesting situation. Her breasts slightly increase and become more sensitive to touch, the nipples coarsen and from them appear discharge - thus nature prepares the mammary glands for future lactation. Soon after conception, pregnant women have complaints about frequent urge to go to the toilet in a small way. As the fetus develops, the uterus begins to press on the bladder and this leads to frequent urination. The woman has nothing to do but resign himself to this symptom, because he will accompany her all the waiting period for the baby. An increase in the number of vaginal secretions is another symptom characteristic of the first trimester of pregnancy. Many representatives of the fair sex certainly noticed that the amount of transparent cervical secretions throughout the menstrual cycle is never the same. In the period of ovulation, before the onset of menstruation, and also during the gestation of the baby, their quantity increases sharply, and the secretions themselves become viscous in consistency. Sometimes the discharge from the vagina in women in a position so plentiful that without daily installation can not do. Normally, excretions during the first trimester should be clear or with a slight whitish hue. Admixture of blood in them may indicate a pathological development of pregnancy and requires an immediate visit to the doctor. Isolation of white, green or yellow shades with an unpleasant odor, accompanied by itching in the perineum, always indicate that pregnancy is accompanied by a disease of the genital tract (from harmless thrush to diseases transmitted through unprotected sex). It is impossible to delay with his treatment a woman, because the disease can lead to the appearance of pathologies in the development of the fetus or its infection, and sometimes even to the termination of pregnancy. If the appearance or smell of vaginal discharge causes a future mother's anxiety, then she immediately needs to visit a gynecologist. Most of the diseases of the genital area today are successfully treated against the background of bearing a baby. In the first trimester of pregnancy, women are often concerned about symptoms such as drowsiness, weakness, headache and dizziness. In those who are prone to loss of consciousness, intrauterine fetal development often causes fainting. Blame all the hormones, under the influence of which there is a restructuring of the body. In order to reduce the manifestation of these signs of pregnancy, a woman should sleep for 10 hours at night and arrange a full-fledged afternoon rest. Removing the headache with medications is not possible, because taking medications in the first trimester of pregnancy can be negatively reflected in the development of the fetus. If the state of health gives the woman a lot of inconvenience, she must tell the doctor about it. In most expectant mothers, constipation occurs in the last trimester of pregnancy. However, if women do not eat properly, then problems with the stool can start to disturb them from the first months of carrying the baby, because the digestive system starts to work in a slowed-down mode during this period. Allow prolonged constipation of pregnant women can not be - this will lead to intoxication of the body and disastrously affect the development of the fetus. In order to make bowel evacuation regular, the expectant mother should give up eating dry and take care that her diet is dominated by foods rich in fiber. The most fiber is found in vegetables and fruits. As a laxative, you can use the infusion of prunes (for a night soak a few dried fruits in boiling water, and in the morning drink the resulting liquid and eat soaked prunes). Take laxatives only after consulting a doctor. Cleansing enemas in the first trimester are contraindicated - they can lead to an increase in the tone of the uterus.
Manifestations of Toxicosis
Toxicosis during pregnancy suffers 9of women from 10. Most often, it manifests itself 4 weeks after conception, but in some particularly sensitive representatives of the weaker sex, it may occur earlier. The most unpleasant symptoms of toxicosis are nausea and vomiting, which can be accompanied by diarrhea. In addition, the woman's culinary preferences change: she begins to pull on sour, salty or spicy, and from the mere smell of her favorite foods, the future mother is troubled. The pregnant woman becomes so aggravated by the sense of smell that it becomes difficult for her to stand next to a scented person, it can be equally irritated by the smell of sweat and the aroma of toothpaste. Most often, the manifestations of toxicosis disturb the woman during the first trimester of pregnancy, and then they pass. Although there are cases when it accompanies the entire period of pregnancy. To suppress a small nausea it is possible with the help of a slice of lemon or mint candy. But if the symptoms of toxicosis are expressed in incessant vomiting, then they can lead to dehydration of the body, and this during pregnancy can not be allowed. Such toxicosis requires the presence in the hospital under the supervision of medical personnel.
Nutrition of the future mother
Nutrition in the first trimester of pregnancy shouldbe full and balanced. However, this is difficult to achieve, because at this time, the future mother often has an aversion to certain foods or to food in general. If under the influence of nausea a woman can not eat the necessary food, then she must confine herself to the food that her body currently perceives. In the case where the manifestations of toxicosis are weak or nonexistent, a woman should strive to consume only a healthy and vitamin-rich food, which will ensure her baby normal development. Fruits (especially bananas, apples, pomegranates, grapes, citrus fruits, melons and watermelons), fresh and stewed vegetables, milk and sour-milk products, seafood, sea fish, lean meat, beef liver, eggs, porridges should be present in the pregnant woman's diet. Of drinks should be preferred to lightly boiled green tea, compotes, fruit drinks, freshly squeezed juices, clean bottled water without gas. During the development of the fetus, the woman should limit the consumption of sweets, muffins, pasta, fatty and fried foods. In the list of taboos for pregnant women - sweet soda, chips, suhariki, coffee, strong tea, alcohol. It is important to ensure that the daily diet in the first trimester does not exceed 2500-2800 kcal.
Becoming an accountant with an obstetrician-gynecologist
During the first 12 weeks of pregnancy should beregister with a women's consultation. From this moment until the very birth after the pregnancy and fetal development will be observed obstetrician-gynecologist and other specialists. After registration, a woman will have to pass a number of important analyzes, among which:
- general and biochemical blood tests;
- blood tests for Rh factor, AIDS, hepatitis and syphilis;
- urinalysis (it will need to be taken regularly to monitor kidney function);
- A smear on the microflora from the vagina;
- in some cases, additional tests for chlamydia, toxoplasmosis, herpes, rubella and other diseases are prescribed.
At the 10-12th week of fetal development, the expectant mothersend to the first ultrasound. The procedure is considered harmless, so do not avoid it. The study will show the duration of pregnancy, the number of embryos and their condition. An ultrasound specialist can easily determine ectopic pregnancy and fetal fading, evaluate the activity of the ovaries, uterus and cervix. If the future mother complains about spotting from the vagina or pain in the lower abdomen, the survey will be able to show their cause. In addition to the tests and ultrasound, the future mother will have to visit a number of narrow specialists (dentist, therapist, oculist, lora) and make an electrocardiogram of the heart. In the first trimester of pregnancy for normal fetal development, the obstetrician-gynecologist usually prescribes to the woman preparations containing folic acid (vitamin B9) - this can be both tablets and vitamin complex. A sufficient amount of folic acid in the mother's body will prevent the development of malformations of the nervous system and malformations in the baby.
Possible pathologies in early pregnancy
The future mother needs to listen to herself andto observe the color of secretions from the genitals, because in the first trimester of pregnancy the probability of miscarriage is especially high. Many factors can lead to it, so a woman needs to take care of her health, do not process, avoid worrying situations, as often as possible rest. Sometimes it is enough to be shocked in public transport or to sit in a hot bath, so that the baby's bearing ends badly. The risk of spontaneous abortion increases in women who have already had miscarriages in the past. Abortions, made by a woman before, can also cause miscarriage. The following symptoms indicate the threat of miscarriage:
- constant pulling pain in the lower abdomen;
- vaginal discharge with an admixture of blood;
- general weakness.
When these signs appear, a woman needsprovide bed rest and call a doctor at home. If you do not follow the precautionary measures, there is almost no chance of maintaining a pregnancy. A common pathology that can be encountered in the first trimester is an ectopic (ectopic) pregnancy. With her, a fertilized egg develops outside the uterus, entrenched in the fallopian tube (less often - in the ovary or cervix). Signs of ectopic pregnancy are periodic or persistent pain in the lower abdomen and brownish discharge from the vagina. Approximately at 4-6 weeks there is a rupture of the fallopian tube, as a result of which the woman has internal bleeding, which carries a danger to life. The shock condition from sudden sharp pain in the groin, clouding of the mind, severe dizziness, nausea - all these symptoms accompany the rupture of the fallopian tube. The sooner the surgery is performed and the bleeding is eliminated, the more likely the woman is to recover quickly.
Lifestyle of pregnant women
Before 12 weeks of pregnancy, a womantake any medication, so she should avoid contact with viral patients and try not to catch cold. Among the categorically contraindicated drugs are antibiotics streptomycin and tetracycline groups, aspirin, reserpine, chlorothiazide, indomethacin, antidepressants. Do not get carried away with polyvitamins, without consulting with a doctor - their overabundance is not the best way to be displayed on the child. Although medicinal herbs are considered harmless, but among them there are those that are undesirable in pregnancy. These include senna, mother-and-stepmother, comfrey, magnolia, juniper, staphania. Uncontrolled taking of medication can lead to miscarriage or pathological development of the fetus. Future mummies should try to spend as much time as possible in the air, do not work overtime and avoid stress. Heavy lifting is also not recommended. At this time, the tummy of pregnant women is almost invisible, but their clothes should already be moderately free, not to tighten the waist and hips. Women at any time of pregnancy should wear comfortable shoes at a low (up to 4 cm) and a stable heel. While expecting to be added to the family, the expectant mother must understand that the course of pregnancy and the health of the child largely depend on it. Rational nutrition, rejection of bad habits, proper rest, constant control of vaginal discharge and timely call for help of doctors will allow a woman to safely endure and give birth to a long-awaited baby.