Unfortunately, technological progressman not only all existing in our time the blessings of civilization, but also an increased risk of various injuries. That is why every modern woman should know how to provide first aid in an emergency situation. After all, often a person's life depends on the correctly provided first medical aid. This article describes the algorithm for first aid in the most common accidents. First aid for domestic trauma in many cases saves human lives. However, before talking about this, I would like to give general recommendations concerning all accidents without exception, whether it is first aid for frostbite or first aid for bleeding:
- The most important thing you need to do isto calm down. Panic is your worst helper. In addition, your fear will necessarily be passed on to the injured person, who, even without this, is very hurtful and scared.
- Try to stop as soon as possibleimpact of the damaging factor on the affected person's body. However, remember your own safety - for example, when exposed to a person's carbon monoxide, it should be carried to the fresh air as quickly as possible, but at the same time, do not forget to use improvised means, for example, a wet towel, for your own protection. If there is first aid in electro trauma, it is necessary to observe some simple rules, which will be discussed below.
- Immediately it is necessary to call a brigade "ambulance"help ". Having called, try patiently and as more as possible to answer all questions of the dispatcher. Believe me, the dispatcher is interested in the patient's age and the circumstances of the incident, not out of idle curiosity. This information will determine which team of doctors is needed to provide as much as possible qualified assistance.
- Clearly tell the dispatcher how to drive to the placeincident, if necessary, if the address is difficult to find, try to get out and meet the ambulance. This will save valuable time.
- Do not hesitate to seek help from othersyou people - sometimes it is very necessary. If you are on the street, for sure people will offer their help themselves. If the misfortune happened in the room, the neighbors will not also refuse to help you, even the most elementary, for example, to meet the doctors of the ambulance.
- If the affected person is conscious, be sure to try to calm him as much as possible and inspire confidence in a favorable outcome.
- If a person is unconscious, be sure tocheck for his pulse and breathing. In the absence of these, immediately begin resuscitation - artificial respiration and indirect heart massage. Do not stop them before the brigade of the ambulance arrives, no matter how much time has passed.
Technique of artificial respiration and cardiac massage
It is the cardiac arrest that is one of thethe most frequent causes of death of people in such accidents as drowning, poisoning, severe injury or electric shock. And a heart massage performed in time can save a person's life. However, it is very important to carry out an indirect cardiac massage in order to have an effect. It should also be noted that heart massage is always performed in combination with artificial respiration. Resuscitation should be started when the patient shows signs of clinical death. The onset of clinical death can be on the following grounds:
- Absence of a pulse on large veins, especially on a carotid artery, which is located on the neck.
- Lack of breath.
- Absence of pupils' reaction to light, their expansion. However, people who do not have medical education should not be guided to this point.
Remember that carrying out resuscitationmeasures is advisable only in the first 4, maximum 5 minutes after the onset of clinical death. In addition, the later will be initiated artificial ventilation and massage of the heart, the more affected by hypoxia internal organs, especially the brain. However, no matter how sad it is, there are cases when there is no sense in resuscitation measures: for example, if after a heart failure more than 10 minutes have passed. In this case, a person will not be able to resurrect even a miracle, and not what resuscitation. The exception is those cases in which cardiac arrest has occurred from prolonged and severe hypothermia. In this case, the critical time increases to 30 minutes. Also, do not do artificial respiration and indirect heart massage "just in case" - in the event that the injured person is unconscious, however, respiratory function and heart activity are not depressed. The very technique of resuscitation is as follows. In case of onset of clinical death, the injured person should be laid on his back on a firm surface, under the shoulders of a person it is necessary to put something - for example, a roller-rolled clothing. This is necessary in order to prevent the sinking of the tongue of the injured person into the pharynx, which is an obstacle to artificial respiration. For someone who will carry out resuscitation, it is necessary to sit down to the left of the injured person, hands to put on the heart area, crossing one on one and begin rhythmically pressing on the chest with a speed of one press per second. The meaning of heart massage is that the heart is squeezed between the spine and the thorax by pressing, as a result of which the blood is simply squeezed out from the cavities of the heart, thus the blood circulation is maintained artificially. Thanks to the indirect massage of the heart in the body of the affected person, the blood circulation in the most important vital organs of a person, like the heart and the brain, is completely restored. However, as is known, blood circulation is necessary primarily to supply the body with oxygen. And in the absence of breathing, there is nowhere to take oxygen in the blood. It is for this and it is necessary to do artificial respiration simultaneously with heart massage. When air is inhaled into the lungs, oxygen is supplied to the body and the risk of death of brain cells is reduced. Before proceeding with artificial respiration, it is necessary to pre-clean the mouth and nose of the victim from foreign bodies, mud, sand, vomit or blood. After this, it is necessary to tightly grip the injured person's nose and breathe in his mouth air. After two to unclose the nose, after which a passive exhalation will take place. You can also do artificial respiration by holding your mouth and breathing through your nose. About how effective the ongoing resuscitation measures can be judged by the following signs. Artificial respiration can be considered effective if:
- At the injured person there are single respiratory movements. However, during this period it is still impossible to stop resuscitation.
- Complete recovery of self-respiratory function. Only after this, the artificial ventilation of the lungs can be stopped.
And indirect cardiac massage is considered successful in the event that cardiac activity is fully restored. To judge whether this happened, it is possible on the following grounds:
- Change in the color of the skin.
- Disappearance of cyanotic shade of visible mucous membranes and nail plates.
First aid for injuries
First aid for trauma is oftencan save not only health, but also human life. That is why it is so important to be able to correctly and timely provide first aid for trauma of any origin. Of course, there are general methods of providing assistance. However, it is very important to remember that first aid for head trauma differs significantly from first aid in trauma to the spine. One of the most common injuries are craniocerebral trauma, such as concussion and fractures of the arch or base of the skull. Often to people with concussions, people are thoughtlessly lightheaded, and very vainly - this is a very serious brain damage. It occurs most often with closed head injuries of the head as a result of a fall or a blow from a blunt object. Often concussions are accompanied by bruises of the brain. That's why in the event that a person has a cranial trauma, first aid should be provided regardless of the victim's well-being. To suspect the presence of a person with a concussion on the following symptoms:
- Loss of consciousness, even short-term.
- Nausea or vomiting, both single and multiple.
- The injured person may complain of dizziness and noise in the ears.
- A pronounced pallor of the skin can be visualized.
- Often, the affected person notes increased drowsiness.
- In more severe cases, short-term amnesia is possible - loss of memory.
If a person has a head injury, the first medicalAssistance must be provided promptly. In the event that a person is unconscious, before medical visits necessarily turn a person on his side in order, in case of vomiting, not to allow the vomit to enter the respiratory tract and asphyxia. However, if the victim has suspicions of spinal injuries, do not try to turn him on his side before the ambulance arrives - just turn his head to the side. After the victim has received first aid for a head injury, he must be taken to a medical institution for a full examination and treatment. The first medical aid for trauma should be strictly depending on what kind of trauma the victim has. For example, during car accidents, chest injuries most often occur, first aid in this case will be the next. One of the most dangerous injuries of the chest are crushed breast wounds. With stab wounds, you can observe symptoms such as pain in the chest, extremely difficult breathing, the appearance of bloody air bubbles from the wound. When you breathe in the affected person, you can hear a whistling sound, which results from the air being drawn into the wound. In the event that you are faced with this type of injury, first of all you need to close the wound. This is necessary so that the injured person can breathe. To do this, seal the wound with an adhesive plaster, placing a dense material under it, which will not allow air to pass through. In the same case, if at hand there was nothing suitable, at least just pinch the wound with your hand. After that, immediately call an ambulance team. But even if a person has an easier trauma to the chest, first aid should still be given immediately. The next most common trauma is fracture of the ribs, which can be either simple or complex. With simple fractures, the affected area swells very quickly, there are strong painful sensations, which are amplified many times during respiratory movements. The only thing you can do yourself is to fix the hand of the injured person, from which the rib is broken. In some cases, more complex fractures of the ribs occur, which involve damage to some internal organs. As a result, internal bleeding may begin. A person experiences severe thirst, difficulty in breathing, blood can go from his mouth. Your actions should be as follows: try to give the patient the most comfortable position, also fix the hand. However, this can be done only if you are absolutely sure that a person has not suffered a backbone. First aid for trauma to the spine should be given with extreme caution, since moving the injured person to the arrival of an ambulance brigade can lead to even more damage to the spine. It is possible to suspect this type of injury in the event that a person has such symptoms as:
- Sharp pain in the neck or back.
- Craniocerebral injury, accompanied by a long-term loss of consciousness.
- Noticeable unnatural position of the neck or spine.
- Numbness of limbs, inability to move them.
The very first thing to do isimmediately call an ambulance team. Before the arrival of doctors, you need to fix the head of the injured person in a stationary state. To do this, you can use any improvised means - curled towels or clothes. In the event that a person exhibits signs of clinical death, immediate resuscitation should begin immediately, but one should try not to change the position of the human body. First aid for abdominal trauma also depends on what kind of trauma the injured person has. There are two types of abdominal trauma:
- Closed abdominal injury. As a rule, most often closed trauma occurs as a result of falling on the stomach or striking it. Very often, as a result of such a traumatic effect, the peritoneal vessels break and as a consequence, internal bleeding develops. Most often suffer from liver, kidney and spleen. Signs of such a trauma are sharp pains in the abdomen, a strong involuntary tension of the muscles of the abdominal press, pallor and loss of consciousness. In especially severe cases, the development of traumatic shock is possible. It is necessary to help the victim take the most comfortable position for him and immediately call an ambulance. In no case before the arrival of physicians to water a victim or give any painkillers. If possible, it is advisable to apply a cold compress to the stomach.
- Open abdominal injuries are called chippedpenetrating wounds, causing damage to the abdominal organs. In especially severe cases, loss of internal organs is possible. The most frequent are the loops of the intestine, as a result of which a traumatic shock develops very rapidly in the affected person.
Unfortunately, very often when seeing such woundspeople who are close to the injured person who do not have medical education are lost and begin to panic. In no case should you try to independently try to correct the fallen internal organs - they must be covered with clean material and do not touch before the arrival of the "first aid".
First medical aid for poisoning
The first medical treatment for poisoning,rendered correctly, also helps to minimize the negative impact of toxins on the body, and sometimes save a person. However, when providing first aid for poisoning, it is necessary to know exactly what causes human poisoning. The most common is first aid for food poisoning. After all, this type of poisoning takes a leading position. The most common cause of such poisoning is the contamination of foods with bacteria: botulism, E. coli, staphylococcus or salmonella. Symptoms of such poisoning are as follows:
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Pain sensations of varying intensity in both the stomach and intestinal regions.
First aid for food poisoning is veryit is simple - it is necessary to provide the sick person with bed rest, limit the intake of food for a day, however, make sure that the sick person drinks enough liquid to avoid dehydration. However, in some cases, first aid for food poisoning should be provided by medical personnel:
- If a child is less than 5 years old or an elderly person.
- If a person has a fever of more than 39 degrees.
- If vomiting is continuous, exhausting.
- If signs of poisoning appeared after eating mushrooms.
One of the most dangerous - poisoning with mushrooms,First aid can often save a person's life. If poisoning is caused by fungi, immediately call for an ambulance. Before the arrival of doctors, try to induce vomiting in the poisoned person. To do this, give him a drink about a liter of water with diluted in it potassium permanganate. A liter of water is sufficient for two or three crystals - the solution must have a pale pink color. The remains of mushrooms must be given to doctors. The first aid for poisoning with tablets is approximately the same. However, it is necessary to establish reliably what exactly and in what quantity the tablets were taken by the poisoned person. It is most difficult to do this if the victim is a small child. When rendering first aid in poisoning children with pills, it is necessary to remember that it is impossible to induce vomiting artificially in children under one year, as this can lead to cardiac arrest! Always send the package from the drug to the ambulance crew. First aid for poisoning with drugs should be provided immediately. Drug poisoning develops very, very quickly - within 30 minutes. The victim has such symptoms as:
- Cyanotic shade of skin.
- The arms and legs are getting colder due to spasm of the blood vessels.
- The patient falls into a pathological drowsy condition.
If first aid for drug poisoningwill not be provided in a timely manner, the patient will very quickly get cramps, paralysis of the swallowing muscles and cardiac arrest. That is why first aid in the poisoning of drugs should be provided as soon as possible. However, unfortunately, at home it is almost impossible to do this, so you need to immediately call an ambulance. Before the ambulance arrives, the only thing you can do is try to induce vomiting, put ice on your head, and put your feet in hot water, on the contrary. Do not let a person fall asleep. The first aid for alcohol poisoning is necessary in those cases when the poisoned person is in an alcoholic coma, and does not react to attempts to wake him up. If a person has alcohol poisoning, first aid will be as follows:
- Allow the victim to inhale ammonia. Continue to give sniff ammonia until he comes to himself.
- After this, call the poisoned vomit, giving him a pre-drink water. However, it is possible to induce vomiting only if a person does not "fall into" sleep.
- Apply a cold compress on your head.
Also emergency first aid is required for acute chemical poisoning. The first aid for poisoning with ammonia is necessary in the event that the victim:
- Acute sore throat, dryness and perspiration.
- Possible edema of the larynx and lungs.
- In the event that a concentrated solution of ammonia got inside, there is a severe lesion and necrosis of the mucosa of the esophagus and stomach.
The first medical aid for poisoning is aimed atelimination of toxic effects of ammonia on the body. Affected areas of the skin and mucous membranes should be thoroughly washed with running water, watered the victim with warm milk and soda and immediately call an ambulance. In the event that there was a poisoning with chlorine, the first aid will consist in the following:
- If chlorine gets on your skin or mucous membranes, immediately flush them with plenty of water.
- If chlorine penetrated the body through the lungs, it is necessary to immediately stop its effects on a person, take the victim to fresh air and immediately call an ambulance.
First aid for mercury poisoning alsois only to induce vomiting in the affected person. After that, immediately call an ambulance. Before the arrival of physicians, give the person activated charcoal from the calculation of one tablet for 5 kg of weight. The first help in poisoning with hydrogen sulphide is to provide the affected person with an oxygen supply. If severe poisoning is possible the onset of clinical death. In this case it is necessary to immediately begin reanimation measures. The first help in case of smoke poisoning depends on the condition of the injured person. If a person has carbon monoxide poisoning, first aid will be to maintain respiratory function and normal blood circulation. Remember that such poisoning also causes vomiting, so be sure to check that there are no vomit in the respiratory tract. Before the arrival of the "first aid" constantly monitor the breath of a person. At the first signs of a violation of cardiac activity and breathing, immediately begin resuscitation. The first aid for poisoning with paint is carried out according to the same scheme as any first aid for poisoning with poisonous chemicals:
- If a person inhales a couple of colors of paint, you must take it to fresh air.
- If the paint has entered the body through the esophagus, it is necessary to induce vomiting, then immediately call an ambulance.
First aid for frostbite of the extremities
Frostbite - quite commonphenomenon. As a result of exposure to the skin at low temperatures, there is a violation of blood circulation, and in more severe cases, thrombosis of the vessels with subsequent tissue necrosis. First aid for frostbite should be given at the first symptoms, however, unfortunately, often this can not be done. This is explained by the fact that when people frostbite, they almost never experience pain. Most often there is a need for first aid for frostbite of the limbs, since they suffer most often. The first help with frostbite is that the injured person should be taken to a warm room. Under no circumstances should you begin to rub your hands with snow or anything else directly in the cold, as this can lead to damage to the skin and subsequent inflammation. In the room it is necessary to immerse your hands in cold water, gradually increasing its temperature. This is necessary for the blood circulation in the vessels to be restored gradually. After the sensitivity is restored, you can rub your hands with alcohol-containing liquids. However, when performing first aid with frostbite, do not use pure alcohol, as this can cause a chemical burn. The first help with frostbite is the same way, but a mustard powder can be added to the foot bath. Often in the winter, people freeze their noses. The first help with frostbite of the nose is the same as in all other cases of frostbite, but instead of alcohol, you must use any fat cream. Once again I would like to recall a simple rule - in the event that you or your loved ones are faced with a situation that threatens life or health, the most important thing is not to lose calm and self-control. And we sincerely hope that you will never have to apply the received information in practice. We advise you to read: