Ficus has long become a kind of symbolhome cosiness. However, not everyone knows that there are not so few species of indoor ficuses. There are among them kids and giants, spreading trees that look like trees, and very harmonious specimens. There are variegated species and even Japanese bonsai-like ficuses. So one of the most popular species of domestic ficuses was and remains ficus lyrate. What kind of plant is it, what care should be taken for it, and whether it is possible to reproduce it at home, we will try to find out.
Ficus lyrata got its ownThe name for the unusual shape of the leaves, which resemble a lyre or a violin. By the way, another household name of this plant is the ficus of the violin. Similarity with the musical instrument gives him a characteristic pattern of light veins on the dark leaf green, similar to strings. This is a plant from the family of mulberry, whose native land is tropical Africa. In nature, he looks more than impressive, reaching thirty meters high. Strictly speaking, a large size is the main difference between the fig tree of lyrate and other species of ficus. Another of its distinctive features - wavy leaves, giving the plant a special decorative. This is an evergreen tree, which in room conditions can grow up to two and a half meters in height. And in nature these trees can exist in tropical thickets in the form of epiphytes, seeking to sunlight. The leaves of the lyrate ficus are also quite large - up to half a meter in length and up to forty centimeters wide. The surface of the leaves is leathery and glossy, and the leaves themselves are planted on a small petiole and arranged on a stalk along a spiral. The most famous varieties of this species are:
- Columnaris - a high colony-shaped plant;
- Bambino - a miniature variety with compact leaves;
- Little Fiddle is a plant of medium height.
The main differences in varieties are the height of the plant,compactness of the crown and the size of the leaves. But, regardless of the variety, this ficus is one of the most elegant and spectacular species of domestic ficus. By the way, and care for him is somewhat more complicated than for other ficuses.
Conditions of detention
Comfortable conditions for the plant - onefrom the conditions of its successful cultivation. Ficus lyrate can even be called a capricious plant, since under unfavorable conditions, he immediately begins to discard the leaves and lose decorativeness. And comfortable conditions are conditions that are close to natural. First of all, you need to choose the right place for the ficus. A plant is photophilous, so the room where the flower grows should be well lit, but the plant itself must be protected from direct sunlight. The most suitable place for the arrangement of the pot with the flower will be the windows facing west or east. On the northern windows, he will miss the light, and on the southern plant will have to pritenyat. Direct sunlight can cause burns to the leaves, and if there is insufficient light, leaves may fall off, internodes and branches may stretch, and the growth of the ficus will slow down noticeably. The temperature regime should also be as close as possible to the natural - tropical. The most suitable temperature for growing ficus will be a range of 20-25 degrees in summer and 15-20 degrees in winter. But in any case, the temperature in the room should not fall below 12 degrees Celsius. Keep in mind that the sudden changes in temperature this flower reacts painfully - brown spots appear on the leaves. The ficus also does not tolerate soil supercooling, so it is not recommended to place it on cold windowsills and should be protected from drafts. As for humidity in the room, where the ficus is growing, it should be elevated (the tropics are the tropics!). A help in maintaining the desired moisture regime regular year-round spraying of the flower and washing its leaves. Useful lyre-shaped ficus and periodic shower, especially in the hot summer months. And next to the pot, you can put a large container filled with water, and try to protect it from the flow of dry and hot air.
Care of any indoor plants is reduced totimely and sufficient watering, regular fertilizing and plant transplantation as needed. And what should be the care for the violin ficus?
The ordered irrigation regime for this plantpick up is problematic. The fact that his need for moisture depends on the size of the plant, and on the temperature in the room, and on the degree of dryness of the air, and on lighting, and on the season. Naturally, in summer the plant needs more intensive moistening than in winter. However, the orientation is necessary to dry the soil in the pot. Soil should not be constantly moistened - in the intervals between watering it must be allowed to dry out. Important! At any time of year, the violin ficus should be watered only with soft water, which must previously be well settled. If you water the plant with a stiff (enriched salt and impurities) water, then on its leaves there will appear white spots - salt divorces. Another condition for literate irrigation is the use of only warm (or room temperature) water and watering from above the soil, in which its surface should be evenly moistened. After twenty to thirty minutes after watering, the water drained into the pan must be drained, and the bottom of the pot and the pan should be wiped dry.
- Feeding and transplantation
Violent ficus needs periodictransplant, as it refers to the rapidly growing indoor flowers. The first two or three years to replant it is necessary every spring. After four years of age, transplantation is less frequent - once every two years. The signal about the need for transplantation is the degree of filling of the flower pot with roots - when the roots fill it completely, the plant needs to be moved to a new container. The new pot should be two or three centimeters larger in diameter than the previous one. The transplantation is carried out by the transshipment method, keeping the old earthen lump and filling the new soil with voiceless soil between the clod of earth and the pot walls. This method is recommended in order to preserve the root system of the plant. For young ficuses it is necessary to take a soil mix consisting of peat, sand and leaf land in equal proportions. Primer for adult specimens is supplemented with turf or humus. If you do not have the opportunity to make the soil mixture yourself, then you can buy ready-made soil, designed specifically for growing ficuses. Top dressing of the figurine of the lyrate is carried out every two weeks. In this case, liquid complex fertilizers are used in a concentration two times lower than recommended on the package.
If you have a desire to multiply youra wonderful ficus, then it's easy enough. Reproduction of fig tree lyrate is carried out by the method of propagation by using stalk or leaf cuttings. Cuttings length of a dessert-fifteen centimeters cut with a sharp knife (not scissors!) At an angle. In the place of the cut, milky juice will be emitted, which must be washed off with running water, and leave the stalk for drying for two to three hours. The cut stem is then placed in a container of water in which one charcoal tablet is dissolved. Roots on the cuttings appear a month later. During this time, it must be ensured that the leaves of the cut do not touch the water, otherwise the plant will begin to rot. Rooted cuttings are planted in small pots filled with a suitable soil mixture. And on this reproduction of the fig is considered complete - further care for the young plants is necessary according to standard rules. The only exception is a more frequent transplant.
Violent ficus can be affected by fungalinfections and pests. In addition, problems are possible if violation of the rules of care. So, for example, with excessive irrigation, the leaves may begin to turn yellow and fall off. The cause of this trouble are also sudden temperature changes and insufficient air humidity. In fungal diseases on the leaves appear brown speckles and black spots. Treat such infections with fungicides according to the instructions on the package. The most common pests that infect the violin ficus are the mite and mealybug. From the tick, the plant is treated with acaricides, and the mealybug is first removed with a cotton swab dipped in alcohol solution, and then the plant is treated with any anticoccid preparation. However, with the optimal humidity of the air in the room and observance of the rules of care, the lycophyllous ficus is seldom sick and does not cause much trouble to its owners. But they are pleased with their elegant appearance, luscious greenery and rapid growth. So just create your handsome man a comfortable environment and take care of him according to all the rules. Good luck!