ficus rubber In wild conditions, ficuses grow to thirtymeters in height, but for domestic conditions such giants do not fit. Fortunately, these plants can be grown in ordinary flower pots and tubs in a "reduced version". There are fifteen hundred kinds of ficus, but centuries of decorating houses with the help of plant breeding have isolated the most promising subspecies of this plant, the care of which is not difficult - everyone can master the reproduction of fig trees. One such species is the Ficus elastica (Ficus elastica). It was grown in the middle of the 19th century, however, for purely utilitarian purposes - for the preparation of rubber. At home, the following forms of ficus are usually grown:

  • Belize - leaves on the edges have whitish-pinkish stains.
  • Variogata - pinnate, light leaves with light divorces.
  • Robusta - the most popular ficus rubber for domestic farming, whose leaves are green, broad and leathery.
  • With the proper skill of these ficuses, you can grow plants in bonsai technique.

    Rules for caring for the ficus

    Care of these plants, as well as reproduction, nottoo complex. The temperature should not be above 23 degrees in summer and not lower than 12 in winter. The main point to which you should pay attention: the lighting of the plant must be provided, based on the type and color of the foliage. Ficuses, whose leaves are variegated, require more light than those whose leaves are monochrome. But they both do not like direct sunlight. Watering these plants should not be abundant, but the earthen must be constantly slightly moist. It should be remembered that the ficus can dump the leaves and in excess, and with a lack of moisture. In any case, it is necessary to ensure good drainage. In addition to watering, it is necessary to spray water at room temperature, the water should in no case be colder than 15 degrees. Bigger ficus are less sensitive to moisture, ficus forms with small leaves require frequent spraying. If the apartment has central heating batteries, you can put a shallow container with water near the plants. Periodically wipe the leaves with a damp sponge, cleaning them from dust. In nature, the rubbery ficus grows to thirty meters tall; so that your pet does not make such attempts, it must be treated in a special way. Formation of the crown is done in the spring, at this time there is an active growth of the ficus and it is easier for him to heal the wounds after pruning or pinching. It is necessary to take into account that the ficus of the rubber produces a poisonous milky juice, which can cause serious irritation when it gets on the skin. If the height of your plant suits you, you need only pinch the top of the main shoot. If the ficus is too high, before pinching it, you need to cut it 5-7 centimeters above the desired leaf. Note that pruning and pruning of the central shoot lead to the fact that the ficus will no longer grow in height. Trim the plant with a disinfected knife or pruner. Disinfect the pruner and the knife with alcohol or burn them over the fire. After the pruning is done, you need to remove the milk juice with a damp cloth, in any way you do not need to process the slices. When in the spring you remove the apex, the side buds activate and release lateral shoots of approximately the same length and strength, so it is easier to get a "fluffy" plant in the spring, besides, the crown formation passes more evenly. Try not to trim the ficuses in autumn and winter, pruning plants during this period leads to the loss of stored nutrients, and can also lead to unilateral development of the crown. Ficus should be fed from spring to mid-autumn twice a month, alternating organic and mineral fertilizers. Such care does not cause any difficulties, the main thing is to remember that the soil must be moist before fertilization, and the fertilizer itself should not fall on the leaves. Ficus of rubber leaves fall leaves

    Diseases of ficus

    Unfortunately, the ficus of the rubber is not spared frompossible diseases and pests. Care during illness should be especially thorough. Not always you can immediately find the cause of the ailment, but there are several most common situations and recipes for getting rid of them. If your ficus turns yellow and leaves fall, there may be several reasons for this:

  • Lack or excess of moisture. The rubber-ficus ficus reacts very nervously to both. Most often it is because of the bay or, vice versa, lack of water, the leaves of the plant turn yellow and fall off. Try changing the mode of watering the ficus.
  • Lack of lighting. Try to rearrange the plant in a more lit place, but not under direct sunlight. The irony of the situation is that at any permutation the ficus can also react by dropping the foliage. But at least it will not perish from burns.
  • Too small or too large pot. Alas, this is also a common problem. It is solved by transplanting the plant into a more suitable container.
  • Diseases or decay of roots. Determined by the unpleasant odor of an earthy coma. If you feel a clear unpleasant smell, gently release the root system from the soil, remove all decaying, sprawling roots under the fingers, slightly dry and transplant them into new soil. This is what concerns the decay of roots. Diseases we will discuss in more detail later.
  • Pests. Ficus rubber is prone to attacks of a spider mite, mealybug, scabbards and false scythes. To deal with them, it is best to buy special tools in specialized stores and take care of plants with their help, strictly following the instructions.
  • The reason that the leaves of plants fall, there may be diseases, the most common are the following:

  • Cercospora. This fungal disease, on the leaves of the diseased plant there are small black spots. The leaves turn yellow only in a very serious disease. Necessary care: destruction of diseased parts of the plant and further treatment with fungicide.
  • Anthracnose. Another fungal disease. In this case, a burn appears on the edges of the leaves, rusty spots. When the disease develops, the leaves fall off. Necessary care: destruction of diseased parts of the plant and further treatment with fungicide.
  • Botritis. Fungal disease. On the leaves there is a yellow or rusty patchiness, with time the spots increase. Necessary care: destruction of diseased parts of the plant and further treatment with fungicide.
  • Diseases of the ficus occur, mainly in connection withimproper feeding or too cold or copious watering. If suddenly your ficus has fallen off all the leaves, do not worry: continue to look after it properly, and, quite possibly, it will again overgrow. ficus rubber breeding

    Transplantation and reproduction of ficus

    Ficus transplantation is not a very complicated matter. The main thing is to remember that it is produced in the spring, and it is desirable that for one year only a transplant or only pruning is necessary. Plants are difficult to adapt at a time to both procedures and heal the wounds after this. Transplantation of young plants is carried out by the method of transshipment, with minimal impact on the root lump. Adults, large plants that are difficult to transfer to a new pot, change the top layer of the soil every year. If, for some reason, the transshipment method does not work (the roots have decayed, they had to be processed, after removing the substrate), the ficus should be transplanted as carefully as possible, without letting the roots bend down, rooting it at the same height as in the previous pot. Reproduction of ficuses occurs with the help of vegetation. To do this you will need:

  • Plant. Reproduction is done using a leaf of a ficus with a fragment of the stem or apical cuttings with a diameter of four to six millimeters. Developing and lignified fragments of the stem are not suitable for these purposes.
  • A sharp knife or scalpel. Secateurs or scissors are not suitable.
  • Stimulant rooting. The best means of this kind is heteroauxin. With it, the number of dead cuttings will decrease significantly, which will greatly facilitate the reproduction of fig trees.
  • Container for processing cuttings in the stimulator. If you have no more than five cuttings, this treatment can be carried out in a conventional glass.
  • Container for washing cuttings - preferably a large basin or a bucket. If cuttings are small, you will not need a similar capacity.
  • Containers for proper rooting. Disposable cups are best for these purposes.
  • Warm water.
  • Reproduction of ficuses is as follows- pour warm water into the washing container, black out the plant, wash the cuttings to remove dirt and milk secretions. Dissolve root stimulant according to the instructions, immerse in it cuttings or fragments of the stem with leaves, in the solution should be cuts, but not the leaves themselves. Leave them there for a day, the temperature in the room at the same time should not be below twenty and above thirty-five degrees Celsius. After a day, take the cuttings and place them on disposable cups filled with water, leave them there until the roots are formed. In this case, the temperature should also not fall below twenty degrees Celsius, because this will reduce all reproduction to none. As necessary, you need to add water to the cups. If you did everything according to the instructions, after one to three weeks you will have suitable shoots that need to be planted in the soil mixture (equal parts of foliage and turf and sand), after which you need to provide them with care, like adult ficuses. The first time to feed young plants need two weeks after planting, the second time - after they go to growth. Do not forget with time as the ficuses grow larger. As you can see, reproduction is not such a complicated process as it might seem to an inexperienced florist. And in general, it is not so difficult to care for ficuses, the main thing is to do it regularly, observing all our recommendations.