Undoubtedly, for infants, especially in the firstmonths, ideal food - mother's milk. It not only contains all the necessary nutrients, enzymes, hormones, protective factors, but it is easily digested, absorbed by the baby's body. Therefore, it is important to keep breastfeeding as long as possible.
Ingredients of breast milk
Maternal milk has a unique chemicalcomposition, which has a related relationship to the composition of cells and tissues of the child. The composition of breast milk during lactation varies several times, synchronously with how the digestive organs of the infant are being improved. In the first 2-3 days after childbirth, colostrum is produced - a thick liquid of yellowish color. It is very rich in protein and mineral substances, there are few fats and carbohydrates in it. The composition of the colostrum is very close to the composition of the baby's serum proteins, and therefore it is especially easily absorbed and most well absorbed. Even the small amount of colostrum that the baby sucks in the first days, provides it with everything necessary, and puts a barrier to diathesis. After the third day of lactation, "transitional milk" is produced: there is less protein in it, and the proportion of fats and carbohydrates increases. Much now and in the future depends on the quality of the mother's nutrition. Proteins of female milk are easily digestible whey proteins called albumins and globulins. More coarse protein, casein, appears only from 4-5 days, and it will be much less serum - in the proportion of 20:80. Proteins overlap in the baby's stomach in the form of a loose clot with a large surface, easily accessible to the action of digestive juices. Fats of breast milk are absorbed by 90-95%. This is a very thin emulsion, consisting of the smallest fat globules. Special splitting enzyme lipase is also an integral part of mother's milk. In fats, a high concentration of fat-soluble vitamins A and E, necessary for normal growth and development of the child's body. The fat content changes throughout the day, increasing by the evening. The first portions of milk contain less fat, and the latter (the so-called "rear milk") - more, which also corresponds to the needs of the baby. Carbohydrates of human milk are mainly milk sugar of lactose. Lactose has bifidogenic properties - it stimulates the growth of a beneficial microflora (bifidobacteria) in the intestine of the baby. Most of the lactose is split in the small intestine, but a small amount falls into the large intestine, where under the influence of bifidobacteria it is converted to lactic acid. And it, in turn, suppresses pathogenic bacteria and protects the body. The composition of minerals in breast milk is optimal for the growth and development of the child. Calcium and phosphorus are in easily digestible form and ideal ratio (2: 1). Rickets to such children is not terrible. All the minerals are absorbed from the mother's milk perfectly. Protective factors (special immunologically active substances and cellular elements) are also a unique property of women's milk. In it there is a substance lysozyme, which destroys harmful microbes in the mouth and in the intestines of the baby. In addition, lysozyme of human milk is 100 times more active than cow lysozyme. Vitamins in human milk fully satisfy the requirements of the child's body. And in many ways their composition depends on what is on the table with the mother. Keep this in mind! And one more quality of mother's milk irreplaceable by artificial mixes - the maintenance of the whole complex of hormones regulating growth and development of the child. There is evidence that, with natural feeding, children on average begin to walk at 12.5 months (with artificial feeding - at 14.7), and the beginning of speech "falls" at the age of 13.3 and 15.2 months, respectively.
More stable psyche, good contact,kindness, tender affection for loved ones - these are the qualities of people, nourished by mother's milk. After the baby has eaten, milk is decanted for prevention and treated with 2% tannin ointment, 2-5% silver nitrate solution, 3% methylene blue solution, 2% formalin alcohol, vitamin A. If the inflammation begins, the nipples are smeared with a sintomycin emulsion that quickly remove its manifestations, juice Kalanchoe, psyllium, Shostakovskiy balm, 0.2% solution of furatsilina. A good effect is obtained by local ultraviolet irradiation. It is also necessary to comply with certain rules: once a day, wash your chest with warm water and soap, to express the milk as well as to breastfeeding - wash your hands thoroughly. Between the feeds, you should wear a bra and change it at least once a day. You should be especially cautious if there are cracks in your nipples.
Inflammation of the breast resulting from hittingin it of microbes. When treating it, you should avoid stagnant milk in the gland. And so, despite the pain, the child continues to be fed and the milk is decanted after feeding. Only with a severe course of the disease, especially if pus enters the milk, breast-feeding is stopped. It is highly podintovyvayut, superimposed warming compresses (simple, with alcohol, balm Shostakovskogo). Physiotherapeutic procedures are recommended. In extreme cases, prescribe antibiotics inwards, as well as surgical treatment,
How to avoid unnecessary anxiety?
Each breastfeeding mother has periods when sheit seems: the child does not have enough milk. As a rule, this phenomenon is temporary, lactation is then restored. First of all, take care of the correct mode and rational nutrition. It is necessary to eat enough white food: milk, dairy products, meat, fish, eggs, as well as vegetables, fruits, berries. Milk production will increase if 10-15 minutes before feeding the child drink a glass of tea with milk, kefir, compote or broth of wild rose. You can resort to special tools that stimulate milk yield. A definite effect is provided by the use of nicotinic acid (vitamin PP). The drug is taken 40-50 mg 2-3 times a day for 10-15 minutes before feeding the baby. Two weeks is usually enough - lactation is getting better. Good 10-15 days to drink vitamin E - 10-15 mg 2 times a day. Sometimes the milk becomes smaller due to the fact that on the nipples of my mother there were painful cracks. In this case, start feeding the baby first from a healthy breast, and give "sick" when he is already a little sated and will not suck so greedily. Try several times for feeding to change the position of the child - this will reduce the strain in the most painful part of the nipple. Having finished feeding the baby, leave on the nipple a few drops of milk and allow them to dry. In general, with cracks in the nipple as long as possible should be not closed clothing (at least at night). Sometimes it is permissible to grease cracks with lanolin (other creams, ointments, oils are usually ineffective). Increase the amount of milk will help drinks from carrots, dandelions, oregano, salad seeds, dill, cumin, anise, fennel. Prepare them easily.
- Carrot juice. Drink 0.5 cup two to three times a day. To be tastier, add 1 tablespoon of milk, cream or some other juice.
- Carrot juice with milk. 2-3 tablespoons grated carrot in a small grater, pour 1 cup of milk or cream. Strain. Drink 1 glass two or three times a day.
- Juice from the leaves of a dandelion. Rinse fresh fresh young dandelion leaves, soak for two hours in cold water and pass through a meat grinder. Squeeze the juice through the cheesecloth, salt to taste and let stand for 30-40 minutes. Drink half a glass 1-2 times a day in small sips. You can add sugar, honey, syrup, lemon juice to the dandelion juice.
- Drink from the seeds of lettuce. Rub 20 grams of seeds in a porcelain mortar, pour a glass of boiling water and put it for 3 hours. Strain. Drink 0.5 glasses 2-3 times a day.
- Caraway drink. Seeds of cumin (15 g) pour 1 l of hot water, add chopped lemon (or g of citric acid), 100 g of sugar and cook on very low heat for 7-10 minutes. Cool, strain and take 0.5 cup 2-3 times a day.
- Cream with cumin. 2 cups of cream and 2 tablespoons of cumin seeds are placed in a ceramic pot (fireproof pot), close the lid and put on 30-40 minutes in the oven, languish on low heat. Cool and drink 0.5 cups twice a day.
- Infusion of seeds of dill. 2 teaspoons of seeds pour a glass of boiling water, give an hour to brew, strain. Drink an infusion of cold 2 tablespoons 3-4 times a day.
- Drink from anise, fennel and oregano. Grind the seeds of anise and fennel in a mortar and mix with oregano (just take 10 grams) and, filling a glass of boiling water, leave to infuse for 2 hours, and then strain. Drink 0.5 glasses twice a day.
If the milk is less due to the fact thatworried, the nervous system will calm the decoction or infusion of valerian, motherwort. When it is necessary to increase the amount of milk after premature birth, successfully apply the drug cerulek recently. It promotes the production of the hormone prolactin, which stimulates the secretion of breast milk. If all the remedies you have read above do not help, on the 10-15th day after the birth the doctor can appoint a cerucal. It is taken 1 tablet 3 times a day for 15-20 minutes before meals during the week. If necessary, the course can be repeated after 10 days. Keep in mind that with the reception of cerulekal, weakness and drowsiness are sometimes observed, but the etiology quickly passes. The only limitation is that cerucal is not recommended for women with a tendency to increase blood pressure.
Nursing mother's nutrition
A woman who nurses a month-old baby shouldproduce about 600 grams of milk, a three-month-old child - 700-750 grams and a 6-month-old child - 750-810 g. An important role is played by the diet of a nursing woman. A good generic and postnatal diet with the inclusion of a sufficient amount of fluid, adequate rest and frequent stimulation of the breast feeding the baby will help you to develop the necessary amount of milk. As we have already said, try to drink milk, kefir, yogurt (at least 0.5 liters) every day, eat curd or curd products (about 100 g), meat (about 200 g), vegetables (600-800 g), eggs , oil (50 g), fruit (not less than 500 g), bread (400-500 g). It is recommended to eat vegetable oil (20-30 g). Lactation is promoted by honey, watermelons, mushroom soups, brewer's yeast (a drink and pasta), walnuts, fish dishes. Keep track of the amount of liquid consumed - it should not be less than 2-2.5 liters per day, taking into account all liquid dishes. It is very useful for 10-15 minutes before feeding to drink a glass of milk. Pay special attention to the iron content in your diet. In a nursing mother, the need for the edible gland is 30 mg per day. Many researchers recommend mothers of premature babies, twins, large and giant children during their breast-feeding period to take iron preparations (for example, gemostimulin). In recent years, the number of newborns with a deficiency of the immune system has increased significantly. Therefore, avoid foods that can cause allergies in the baby. This is honey, fish, citrus fruits, strawberries, chocolate, natural coffee, pickles, strong meat broth, canned industrial products, excess eggs and sausages. All alcoholic beverages, including beer, are strictly forbidden. If, in spite of the initial loss of weight, a month after giving birth, you weigh more than you are recommended (add 0.5-1 kg to your nursing breast), you can follow a diet for weight loss. It is best to lose 0.5-1 kg per week and avoid fatty and heavy food. Losing weight with such speed, but not faster, you will satisfy your nutritional needs and retain the ability to give enough milk. The amount of food and the number of calories that you need every day depend on a number of factors. If you are very active, if you have a large child or if you are breastfeeding more than one child, then you need more calories each day to maintain your weight. On the other hand, if you are less active and are feeding your child with artificial compounds, then perhaps you do not need extra calories. During lactation, you should continue to eat as well as during pregnancy, and control your weight, based on the amount of calories you consume. Regular exercise also helps to control weight.
Breastfeeding and medicines
Very cautious about taking medicationspreparations. The fact is that along with you these medicines will be taken by the child - they very quickly get into breast milk. There is a group of drugs that are contraindicated to a woman when breastfeeding. These are tetracyclines, streptomycin, sulfanilamides, nilidixin, iodine, reserpine, glucocorticoids, cytostatic agents, ergotamine, metronidazole, chlorpropamide. If the mother takes these medicines, the child may experience hearing damage, growth retardation, hyperbilirubinemia, lethargy, rash, digestive disorders, bloody diarrhea, vomiting. Of course, it also happens that for health reasons a woman has to be treated. But in this case it is necessary to consult with a doctor, he will recommend the most successful treatment option.
Mixed and artificial feeding
Often, unfortunately, despite themeasures to increase lactation, breast milk is not enough. Then it is necessary to transfer the child to the mixed feeding - to supplement missing with artificial dairy mixes. The most important thing is to keep the maximum possible amount of mother's milk. Here are the correct actions: in every feeding, put the baby to the breast (first to one, then to the other), and only when both are completely emptied, proceed to supplementary feeding. Such tactics are absolutely necessary when feeding children of the first months of life, when every drop of mother's milk is valuable. There are "tricks" so that the child does not lose the habit of breast sucking. If the mixture is small, feed the baby from the spoon, otherwise it will get used to the easy flow of milk from the nipple, whereas in order to get food from the maternal breast, efforts must be made. But if you have a lot of pre-feeding, it's better to put it in a special cup and, at the most, use a bottle, choosing an elastic pacifier and making a few holes at the end, so small that the liquid flows out with sparse drops, and the kid worked hard to get full. Note also that even if there is a lot of pre-feeding, they still give it only after putting the baby to the breast. Give the mixture in the form of independent feeding, alternating with the breast, is not recommended, since the lactation quickly fades.
But what if there is no milk at all?
If it was discovered in the first months of lifebabies, especially if he was born weak, premature or injured, try to feed him with donor milk at least 2-4 weeks and only gradually go first to mixed and then to artificial feeding. The main thing - to choose the right mixture, given the age of the baby, the level of his physical development and health. For artificial feeding, breastmilk substitutes are produced - adapted milk mixtures, according to the content of basic nutrients as close as possible to the composition of female milk. Most often these are dry powders, which need to be reconstituted by diluting with a certain amount of water. There are several types of adapted mixtures:
- "Initial" - mixtures for infants of the first 2-3 months of life, maximally adapted to the peculiarities of digestion of these crumbs;
- adapted mixtures for children older than 3 months;
- A mixture that can be used throughout the first year of a child's life.
Which mixtures to choose?
Of the modern domestic best: dry adapted mixtures "Nutrilak-1" - for babies up to 3 months of life and "Nutrilak-2" - for older ones. These mixtures are enriched with whey proteins and social biologically active additives. A large selection of imported and adapted milk formulas for babies. Many have a number of advantages - they contain easily digestible whey proteins, a wide range of vitamins, a number of biologically active substances, do not require boiling during reconstitution, are equipped with dosage spoons, have a longer shelf life. For the children of the first month of life, one can recommend "Similak 40/60", "Fresolak 1", "Enfamil 1", "Humana 1". During the first year of life, you can use such mixtures as "Similak with iron", "Nutrilon", "Nan", "Heinz" and others. When choosing a mixture, pay attention to what age is indicated on the label and what is the chemical composition. So, for babies of the earliest age it is better to take mixtures with a lower protein content (in the range of 1.4-1.5 g per 100 g of liquid product) and enriched with such biologically active additives as taurine, alpha carnitine. For a weakened, anemic child, choose mixtures with a higher iron content (0.8-1.2 g per 100 g of liquid product), for children with signs of rickets - enriched with vitamin D. When restoring dry mixtures, it is very important to correctly dose the necessary amount of powder and water, not allowing the preparation of either too concentrated or a more dilute mixture. Equally harmful is both, and more! In the first case, the baby can not cope with excess nutrients - he has regurgitation, upset of the stool, and a decrease in appetite. Using too diluted mixtures will adversely affect the development of the child. In addition to dry adapted products, there are also ready-to-use mixtures: they are produced in dairy kitchens of the health care system and in baby food shops of dairy plants. Convenience is obvious: there is no time to prepare them and the wrong dosage is excluded. However, you can use them for mixed or artificial feeding of the baby of the first months of life only if you receive them systematically. Episodic application of such mixtures is inappropriate - a small child is difficult to adapt to sudden changes in nutrition. Especially useful for children are sour-milk adapted mixtures. The fact is that they contain pure cultures of acidophilus bacillus, bifido- or other sour-milk bacteria that have the ability to displace harmful microorganisms from the intestine and thus have a protective effect, preventing the development of many intestinal diseases. Especially useful are such foods in the hot season, weakened babies and those with unstable stools. All that was said about the choice of the mixture is very important for the organization of breastfeeding, deprived of mother's milk. Equally important is the proper use of these mixtures. To enter any, even the most perfect mixture in the nutrition of an infant is necessary with some caution, starting with a small amount, paying attention to portability. It is especially important to observe this principle when it is necessary to suddenly transfer the baby of the first months of life to artificial feeding. What is important to know in this case?
- If the mixture is not well tolerated (the appearance of regurgitation, stool disorders, rashes on the skin), contact the district pediatrician. It always helps if you need to adjust the baby's nutrition.
- In the first 1-2 days in each feeding, give the child no more than 2/3 of the age portion, while the total missing amount of food is replenished with liquid (boiled water, weak tea).
- If the baby tolerates the mixture well, its quantity can be quickly brought to normal.
- With good tolerability, do not try to give other mixtures, as for each new product the child is forced to adapt, and for babies it is very difficult.
- Correctly determine how much mixture is needed. It depends on the age and body weight: daily amount of food for a baby up to 2 months -1/5 of his body weight, from 2 to 4 -1/6, from 4 to 6 months -1/7.
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