child development up to a year by months The first year of life of each baby is saturated with a hugenumber of different events. A crumb is born, acquainted with his parents. Mom nurses him, learns to take care of the child, guesses his slightest needs. And the crumb actively learns the world around: the first conscious look, a smile, babble and a word. And at the end of the first year there is an important event: the child has the first awareness of himself as an independent person. A certain stage of growing has its own characteristics, which every parent should know, because who is forewarned is armed. It is necessary to support the baby in his endeavors, to respond correctly to his needs, to be able to recognize them, and to learn this, one must understand how the child develops up to a year to a year.

First month

Parents must have at least the slightestidea of ​​how the development of a child takes up to a year. So it will be much easier to understand your child, to be guided by his achievements. However, it should be borne in mind that all children are different, that each of them is a bright individuality. Therefore, a crumb can for one or two months fall behind or outstrip the generally accepted development calendar, and this is not considered a deviation from the norm. So, let's look at how the baby changes, gradually turning from a small helpless creature into an independent person. Newborns are quite difficult to adapt to the surrounding reality, because their body works with great strain. Therefore, 70% of the time they spend in a dream, and the rare moments of wakefulness are quickly replaced by fatigue, and the crumb plunges into slumber. Being in a quiet state, the legs and arms of the kid usually flex in the joints and press against the body, and when the child is awake, its limbs randomly move. In the first month of life, children do not focus their eyes properly, but this does not mean that they do not react to the world around them - they all hear, blink and tremble at sharp sounds. Over time, the vision becomes better, and around the third week of life, the baby begins to delay his gaze on fixed bright objects, on the faces of adults. Muscles become stronger - you will soon notice how your child tries to lift the head, lying on his stomach. Of course, the child will not be able to hold it for long - only a few seconds - but will gradually turn his head in different directions. All children have certain reflexes that help them to adapt in an unknown and new environment. During the first months after the appearance of the baby, many of them disappear (grasping, searching, swimming, sucking and others), but some - sneezing, yawning, blinking, flinching - are saved for life. The reflex activity of a newborn should be monitored very carefully and regularly visited by a pediatrician who will be able to determine how correctly the development of the child and his nervous system takes place. During this period, children need special care, affection and love. It is in the first month of life that a basic attitude and trust to the outside world is laid, and it is built, first of all, on a psychological and emotional connection with the mother. Hearing the sound of her heart, feeling her native smell, receiving food, warmth and safety from her mother, the baby is gradually adapting to an unfamiliar environment and is learning to react adequately to it. child development up to a year

Second month

Approximately to the second month of life in childrenthe daily rhythm of life is formed - in the daytime they sleep, and at night they are awake. The child begins to recognize your touch, voice, emotionally reacts when talking to him. By this time, even my mother understands why her child is naughty or what she wants to say when performing certain actions. Therefore, it becomes a little easier for parents. If the first few weeks the newborn mostly sleeps, then afterwards he is practically awake all the time, waving his legs and hands in different directions, since he does not yet know how to manage them. However, after trying to lay him on his side, you will see that the baby is able to turn over himself. In addition, closer to the third month, he already holds his head pretty well, lying on his stomach and leaning on his forearms. Gradually, children learn to control their hands: by the end of the eighth week they suck a finger, pull their palms to their mouths, a little later they will be able to rub their eyes and hold toys. Over time, the child focuses on the objects, there is an interest: he watches the people coming from his crib and approaching her. If the first few days and weeks of crumb constantly crying, then by the second month begins to smile not only in a dream, but also watching the parents. There is a positive emotional reaction to the father and mother, there is a need for communication (a revival complex). This is the most pleasant time for parents, because the kid, seeing you from afar, begins to make joyful sounds, pull the handles and radiantly smile. In order for your child to grow up as an independent and confident person, in the first months of his life, help the crumb to adapt to the new conditions of life for him. To do this, you are always near the baby, because your presence is very positively reflected in his psycho-emotional state. Strangely enough, this will sound, but the best way to accustom the crumb to self-organization is to be with him constantly. The constant presence of parents inevitably leads to the fact that the child will begin to correlate all his actions with what they are doing. And so the child begins to feel that he is also a full participant in all events around him. Child psychologists say that this feeling is born in a child very early - about two to three months. A baby with a pacifier in his mouth is a familiar sight. Many parents, when preparing things for their crumbs, do not hesitate to purchase beautiful pacifiers. And as soon as a child comes into the world, he is immediately given a pacifier. Of course, sucking calms the baby. But in any case, do not forget that many situations that cause discontent crumbs, in fact, are a powerful stimulant for its development. A simple example: a crumb is dissatisfied because his rattle is too far away. He begins to grunt and show discontent, and my mother quickly gives him a nipple, especially without knowing what the problem is. However, this is far from the best option, because with this approach, the desire to achieve your child's very quickly disappears. Try to guess the needs and desires of the child and stimulate his independence.

The third and fourth months

By the third month, children are already consciouslyfocus on the face of the person who is talking to them, listen to the voices and recognize them. In response to the conversations, the kid shows joy: he moves his legs and arms animatedly, smiles, produces different sounds - mostly quiet vowels (a-o-u, e-ah, and others). Lying on his stomach and leaning on his forearms, the crumb retains the head much longer than before - for several minutes. Try to take it in your arms, keeping under your armpits, and you will see how hard it rests against the hard surface with its feet. Experts recommend to hang a musical carousel with bright toys over the crib: the kid reacts positively to the sounds, tries to reach for objects that are nearby. This period of time is the most emotional and joyful for parents. After all, children are already beginning to laugh giggly, if they like something, they are much more often in a good mood, singing and talking for a long time in their infant language. They already hold their heads well and actively study the world around them. Now the baby becomes cramped in the bed, bored for a long time to lie down, there are first attempts to sit down - the child strains the press, stretches forward, constantly asking for hands. By the 16th week, the vision of children is gradually approaching the level of an adult: they acquire the ability to examine objects from a close distance, gradually begin to discern shapes and basic colors. Krokha closely follows the objects and objects important to him, both moving and being in place: parents, toys. You can notice how consciously and unmistakably the kid turns in the direction of this or that sound source. So, let's sum up, that according to the development calendar should make a four-month-old crumb:

  • Most of the time the child is awake, moves quite a lot, while often smiling and making joyful sounds.
  • Listening, he unmistakably determines where the source of sound is and turns his head toward him.
  • Carefully examines the objects hanging over him, focuses on them, looks, touches and captures toys.
  • During feeding, the baby tries to hold on to the bottle or the mother's breast.
  • By the end of the fourth and the beginning of the fifth month the child learns parents who are from him at a distance of two to three meters.

development of children up to one year

Fifth and Sixth Months

By the age of five months, children try to pronounce for the first timesyllables consisting of labial consonants: m, n, b. And it's pretty good at them, but if you hear the long-awaited word "mom", then most likely the baby will say it unconsciously. Continue to talk with your child, because in the process of communication he remembers, and then learns to pronounce what you said. At this age, the first grasping movements of the hands are formed in children: they can attract objects to themselves and repel them, capture toys whose colors and shapes are perfectly distinguished. The fifth month is considered transitional in the life of the child - his body adapts to the vertical position. This is a period of new discoveries and achievements, when the kid is actively involved in the "research" work:

  • Turns himself from belly to back;
  • Distinguishes relatives and parents from strangers;
  • Actively moves around the arena, moving his hands forward and creeping slightly forward;
  • At 24 weeks the child can sit, backed up by pillows, without falling to one side, soon he will do it without any support.
  • Unmistakably recognizes the tone in which they talk with him, accordingly he reacts cheerfully or, conversely, frowns;
  • Krohha already pronounces individual syllables, and also - eats well from a spoon;
  • Exactly stands on your feet, if you support it under your arms.
  • He plays with rattles for a long time, intercepting and holding them with his hands.

Seventh-ninth month

From a young age, the character of the child is laid, andit is the parents who are responsible for how it will grow. Children, who in their childhood constantly scolded and never praised, become complex and indecisive people. Therefore, when your kid begins to actively explore the surrounding world, and it will happen in seven months, help him, and do not oppose:

  • The crumb is already confidently crawling and penetrating into all corners and places, so try to stay close by. Note that some children miss this stage and immediately start walking.
  • Another achievement is the ability to independently take rattles and other toys from any position.
  • The kid reacts to the question "where?"And looks for the object you are talking about. By the eighth month, he not only understands what he is being asked about, but also points to this thing. In addition, the crumb performs previously learned movements, for example: "ladushki", "for now" and so on.
  • Speaks a variety of syllables, a long time engaged with toys: he throws, pulls, intercepts his hands.
  • At eight months, the crumb tries to take on an independent vertical position. If there is a barrier or other support next to you, then sticking to her hands, the kid himself gets up.
  • By this time the child is able to perform "reverse" and "direct" actions with various objects. For example, to collect cubes, add toys scattered on the floor in a box and so on.

By the ninth month, the musculoskeletal skeleton of a childbecomes stronger, and the digestive and cardiovascular systems adapt to the force of gravity acting along the axis of his body. The Kid is already prepared for active movement on two legs, so frequent attempts at walking appear, at first unsure. To do this, he needs a support - a wall, furniture, a board of an arena - the kid will hold on to it, and otherwise the crumb just crawls. At nine months, the children respond to their name, drink well from the cup, which is kept for them by an adult. children up to the year development

Tenth-twelfth months

Ten-month-old kid constantly moves,Playing, carefully watching the adults and imitating their actions. It is this ability that helps him to master such skills as the ability to drink from a cup, use a spoon, sleep on a pillow. At this time, small motor skills are actively developing: the child takes and holds objects with two fingers, collects and shakes toys. By this time, parents will probably already hear from their child "mama", "dad", "baba". Gradually, the baby's vocabulary increases, and by the year is about ten words. Beginning at eleven months, the child is increasingly active and independent. He is awake up to five hours a day, eating mainly without the help of adults, walking occasionally falls, but by the year it will pass and the kid will master this skill perfectly. Some moms and dads buy walkers, but experts do not recommend doing this. Of course, it is worth paying tribute to this thing - walkers greatly facilitate their parents life. However, there is one more downside to the medal - both orthopedists and child psychologists are very ambivalent about the walkers. The construction of the walker implies fixing the child in a suspended state. This has a very negative effect on the development of the musculoskeletal system. In addition, when using a walker, the normal formation of independent walking skills slows down. The child gets used to the fact that he does not have to make any special efforts to move. At home there are walkers, on the street there is a stroller. And why should the crumb try? Therefore, it is much more sensible to purchase a walker for a child, not a familiar walker, but a gambling toy. Such toys are designed in such a way as to give the toddler a reliable support while walking, but at the same time to stimulate his independent walking. The development of a child until the year is very active - you do not have time to look back, how the baby will become completely adult and independent. At the age of twelve months, the vocabulary is increased - from this age the karapuz understands five times more than what is capable of pronouncing. Therefore, at this time, special attention should be given to studies, reading books and conversations with crumbs. We advise you to read: