Age in two years is one of the most complex andinteresting periods, at this time the child's physical and psychological development is formed, he begins to actively explore the surrounding world. Kids of two years are very curious, mobile, they turn into real little interlocutors who have their own opinion, actively demonstrate their emerging character. It is at this age that it is necessary to ensure the right development, which will become the basis for the further growth and development of the baby.
Physical development of the child
Two years is the age when children startactively grow and gain weight. For boys, on average, the growth is about 88 centimeters, weight - 12.7 kg, for girls, weight - about 12.2 kg, and height - 86 cm. Kids grow quite quickly, after a couple of months these figures may increase. Children in two years are very mobile, they begin to run and jump, with pleasure to play outdoor games. A child in 2 years not only strives to run, but also to overcome small obstacles up to 20 cm in height. It is necessary to encourage the baby to move more, but at the same time it is necessary to follow it closely, since children at the age of two are simply unpredictable! Parents should be encouraged at this time and the independence of the child, he should begin to dress himself in part, for example, to put on a hat, shoes without laces, pantyhose. Do not rush the baby, just calmly show him yourself several times how to do it correctly, at the age of two the children are very smart.
Two years is the time when the baby startsto perceive logically surrounding speech. He understands a simple story, can express himself thoughts in small sentences of three or four words, using nouns and adjectives. Many children in two or three years themselves tell a small poem, sing songs. It is important to encourage the independence of the child, he himself must begin to hold a spoon, a mug, learn to produce a series of logical simple actions. This concerns the assembling of pyramids with multi-colored elements, playing cubes, drawing. This will allow to properly develop the psyche of children, laying an excellent foundation for further full development. Proper nutrition and the regime of the day The development of the child is also an attentive control over his health. It is important in the first years of his life to make the right diet, in which everything necessary for a growing organism should be. For a baby, about 1,500 calories are needed per day. Regardless of your appetite, you should strive to give food four or five times a day in such a way that between meals takes about three to four hours. It is important for parents of two-year-olds to teach their children to thoroughly chew their food, keep a spoon on their own, gently eat, drink from a mug. Obligatory for the baby vegetables and fruits, cut into comfy slices, soups, liquid porridge. It is important to begin at the age of two years to accustom the child to the daily routine. The baby should gradually get used to sleep and eat at a certain time, which provides a full and proper rest, an excellent appetite. At this age, the child should rest about 12-13 hours, so you have to put him to bed in the evening and at certain times. In the afternoon it is enough that the sleep time is up to two and a half hours. It is not necessary to try to force the child into 3 years to observe the regime by force, it is best to do it in a game form understandable to him. To read the day is necessary with washing, brushing teeth, combing. Next - breakfast, walks or games and so on. Be sure to teach the child to personal hygiene, show that you need to wash your hands before eating, after walking in the fresh air. We are obligatory to start showing children of the second year to such doctors as a pediatrician and a dentist in order to monitor the state of the baby's health. Skills for a child at the age of two years. Children of two years must have certain skills that gradually develop. Among them it is necessary to note the following:
- the ability to walk, run, jump, maintain balance, kick the ball;
- ability to draw lines, cut paper, buildtowers of dice. At this time it is already noticeable already, the right-hander or the left-hander will be a child. We remember that this is not a disease that can be corrected! Do not try to forcibly retrain the child, first watch it closely, try to clarify why he keeps a pencil or a spoon in his left hand, consult an observing pediatrician.
In addition, a toddler aged 2-3 years mustto react to music, to sing simple melodies, to carry out simple requests, to repeat rhymes, to know about two hundred words. Kids at this age should be very active, strive to understand the world around us, which is often expressed in the desire to break or dismantle toys. Do not scold the child, just try to explain to him why you should not do it. In 2-3 years your baby should be able to:
- wash hands, brush your teeth (with the help of a parent or under supervision), walk on a potty;
- keep a spoon, a mug, eat without smearing;
- imitate the behavior of parents, try to help around the house.
How to properly develop a child: rules for moms
To develop the child was right,It is necessary to clearly define what exactly the child should learn at this age. We offer the simplest recommendations for mothers, how you can direct the development of your children, lay a solid foundation for the further formation of a full-fledged personality. Development of children at the age of two years is first of all improvement of memory, development of logic, perception of the world around us. Do not immediately give the child a difficult task, start small, gradually drawing attention to more serious and difficult tasks. Learn by heart poems, songs, do light physical exercises, teach your child to draw and count. In two years the kid is very active, he likes to run, crawl, jump, and he needs to help in this. Proper physical development should include play with the ball, training to keep the balance, squats, jumps, swimming. The child is very receptive to such activities, taking them for ordinary games. And this allows you to strengthen the body, make it more enduring. Already at this time, it is important to develop the spine, arms and legs of the child, so it is recommended to teach him to gradually do gymnastics in the mornings. Go running with it, go to the children's pool, to the parks, where you can frolic, combining it with exciting games. Artistic development and articulation: difficulties and successes For parents, when a child is 2-3 years old, it is very important to start developing children in the artistic direction. This does not mean that we should immediately expect tremendous results from him, but to learn to draw, to perceive music, to be able to sculpt is very important. This not only develops the motor skills, but also accustoms the child to make assessments. In 2-3 years the child should be able to understand what is cheerful or sad music, sounds that birds and animals emit, feel the rhythm. At this time, musical development includes elementary dance movements that teach the baby coordination. Walk more with the child, children begin to explore the surrounding world, answer questions, show and name the names of objects and plants around them. For a child in 2-3 years, everything is interesting, from a simple flower to a road marking. Therefore, it is necessary to properly orientate it, tell you how to behave properly on the road, why you should not break and tear just plants. In relation to the surrounding objects, teach the child the concepts of "high-low," "close-far," color recognition. Age 2-3 years is the most fascinating period when for children a wide, eventful world opens, show it to the kids on the right side! Correct development of children's speech in two years includes constant communication, it is not only reading fairy tales and talking during walks, but also discussing the same tales after reading, guessing riddles, learning new words and concepts. Do not forget to walk around and during the game give the baby new information, encourage the child to ask questions, but be prepared for answers! To develop articulation in 2-3 years, start playing with the kid in various educational games, teach him to blow out candles, make bubbles in the water. Do not be shy with the child to build faces, teach him onomatopoeia. General and fine motor skills, sensorics For children of two years it is important to have initial motor skills. Development should already include the ability to keep things, draw, do modeling, finger gymnastics, catch small objects from water, turn on and off the tap. It is necessary gradually to teach the children to more complex movements, for which they are engaged in drawing, various games with small objects, appliqué. In the form of the game, you learn how to tie laces to different knots, shift beads, drop objects into narrow bottles, cut vegetables under the supervision of adults, and cut out complex figures from paper. At the same time, it is recommended to study sensory, that is, the recognition of the texture of the object, its recognition, for example, the game of pulling out of the bag and guessing objects. In 2-3 years the child is interested. Communicating with peers, household skills of the child At the age of 2-3 years, socialization of the child is necessary, instilling in him household habits. It is during this period that children learn to take care of themselves, not only washing and combing their hair, but also removing them from the table, dressing, closer to three years of age - putting their clothes on their own, starting to help around the house (to the best of their ability to water flowers, feed a pet, wipe the dust, wash fruits or vegetables). Now it is necessary to teach the child to communicate with peers, which is very important. For children of three years the ability to speak normally, playing with their peers helps in the future to communicate correctly with the people around him. Children learn to empathize, feel sorry, rejoice. For mental development, it is very important, you can not keep a child in a vacuum from other children because it can fall, get hurt - all this, on the contrary, is simply necessary for its development.
How to help the child in the desire to develop?
Development of a child at the age of two years can notto pass by itself, correct support and direction of parents is necessary. Do not blame the kid for his failures or constantly praise. Stimulate his interest, but do not encourage laziness. Strive to do what the kid is interested in. If he does not like drawing, try to occupy him with modeling, something else, but do not throw everything. Developing games and training should be presented at the age of two years in the form of an entertaining game, so that the children themselves want it. Be sure to engage in the development of motor skills, proper articulation, to teach the baby to the routine of the day, hygiene. Remember that children at this age already have an opinion, do not "break" them, learn to listen to your child too. Two or three years is the period when mother and child begin to study each other, the kid simultaneously also learns the world around him, learns to correctly orientate in it, communicate with the surrounding people. Learn together with the child and learn the world through his eyes, be tactful and patient!