Dandruff in children is a seriousA problem that causes discomfort to even the smallest child. Constant itching of the scalp, associated with the presence of dandruff, negatively affects the behavior of the child, he becomes irritable, whiny. Becoming older, the baby begins to experience psychological discomfort from dandruff, especially if it wears dark clothes and is constantly in sight. The first step is to understand the causes of dandruff and how to cope with it in order to help the child. Treatment of dandruff in a child is a long and expensive process.
Causes of dandruff
As a rule, the appearance of dandruff begins withprepubertate and pubertal period, when the sebaceous glands begin to function actively. However, in some cases dandruff may appear before this time. This situation occurs in premature puberty, with some hereditary syndromes that are characterized by increased skin greasiness. The work of the sebaceous glands is under the control of sex hormones, primarily testosterone. Therefore, its increased content can lead to the appearance of dandruff. It is recommended to visit a doctor, so that he took the tests and identified a specific cause, and then appointed a treatment. Otherwise, dandruff in children can not be cured.
The mechanism of dandruff
The process of dandruff formation is related to the fact thataccelerated cellular renewal is observed. Normally, the full regeneration of the skin of the scalp occurs in a month, that is, from the very bottom layer of the cell to the surface of the skin rise during this time. If the child has dandruff, then this process is accelerated to 14 days. As a result, cells do not have time to lose the right amount of liquid, so they stick together with the formation of scales of dandruff. In this case, the scalp consists of only 10 cell layers instead of 25, which are normal. Thus, dandruff in children is an accelerated renewal of the cellular composition of the skin, which does not have time to lose water and to corrode, which leads to gluing of these cells.
Role of fungal infection in the occurrence of dandruff
In the fifties of the last century it was doneconclusion about the etiological role of yeast fungi in the emergence of dandruff, which has not lost its relevance at the present time. Scientists, independently of each other, discovered three kinds of fungi: Pityrosporum orbiculare, Pityrosporum ovale and Malassezia furfur (Malassezia), which are representatives of the same species, are only called in different ways. It is proved that these are lipophilic fungi, that is, the presence of fats is necessary for their growth and development. It turns out that the violation of the hormonal balance, accompanied by increased work of the sebaceous glands and increased formation of sebum, contributes to the creation of a favorable background for these yeast fungi.
Clinical course of the disease
This disease can occur continuously orperiodically exacerbated. Termination of the period of remission is due to the impact of any external or internal damaging factors. Especially it is necessary to allocate a predilection for acute and salty foods, which contributes to the work of the sebaceous glands. That is why during the period when the treatment is performed, the baby is prescribed a diet. Signs of the appearance of dandruff Dandruff is a scaly on the scalp. They can be white or gray. They are characterized by an easy removal, because they are connected by a weak connection, that is, loosely connected. Most noticeable are these scales, if the teenager wears dark things. This can cause serious psychological discomfort. In some cases dandruff can be combined with seborrheic dermatitis. This situation is observed with severe course and marked progression of pathological processes in the skin. But even at the initial stage it causes incredible discomfort. Seborrheic dermatitis in clinical course of dandruff Seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin reaction that develops in response to dandruff. In this case, the particles of dandruff are very large, and on the skin there are signs of inflammation, which include:
- swelling of the skin;
- hyperemia of her (redness);
- the itching becomes worse, becoming intolerable;
- pain when touched, especially when combing.
Steatoid pityriasis Steatoid pityriasis alsorepresents a serious form of complicated course of dandruff. It is characterized by gluing dandruff flakes into large crusts, which are tightly connected with the scalp and hair. The transition of dandruff to steatoide pityriasis is observed in the case when the formation of sebum is maximally increased. Therefore, if the child has dandruff, it is necessary to seek help from a doctor to prevent the appearance of steatoid pityriasis.
How to get rid of dandruff
The main goal of treatment is to save the child and adolescent from dandruff. To achieve this goal, two groups of drugs are recommended:
As mentioned above, in no case isshould self-medicate, you need to seek help from a highly qualified specialist. He will appoint all the necessary examinations, after which he will outline a further plan for the treatment of the child. Antifungal drugs in the treatment of dandruff The use of antifungal drugs is the main direction in the fight against dandruff, given the aetiological role of yeast fungi. They are used as part of hair care products: shampoos and lotions. A good antifungal agent should penetrate well into the scalp and accumulate there. However, it should not penetrate to where yeast fungi do not grow. Also these drugs should normalize the division of skin cells and their differentiation (keratoregulating action), have anti-inflammatory effect (it is especially important in cases where there is seborrheic dermatitis). The main thing is not to interrupt treatment if there is an improvement. The most effective antifungal drugs, with which you can treat children, can appoint a doctor. Currently, shampoos and lotions have been created based on ketoconazole, cyclopyrox, clotrimazole and ichthyol, which have proven effective with proper and regular application. They are recommended to be used at least 2 times a week, strictly following the instructions and prescriptions of the doctor. The duration of treatment should be at least 2-4 weeks. Evaluate the effectiveness of antifungal treatment is possible not only by clinical criteria, but also by the result of mycological examination. Treatment is effective if the analysis does not detect the presence of spores of yeast fungi. But in case of relapse it is worth repeating. Normalization of the hormonal balance This is a very important aspect of treatment, for which it is necessary to carry out hormonal studies. First of all, it is necessary to assess the level of testosterone, on which the activity of the sebaceous glands depends. The content of this hormone can increase as a result of various pathological conditions. In girls it is most often a syndrome of polycystic ovaries. Girls are recommended treatment with hormonal drugs with antiandrogenic effect. Remember that any medications should be used only after the tests and the appointment. Rules for prescribing hormonal medications Combined oral contraceptives with anti-androgenic action can be prescribed to adolescent girls who have a menstrual cycle. One of the selected drugs is prescribed one tablet a day for 21 days, and then a break for 7 days, from the 8th day begins a new package. The minimal course of treatment implies the appointment of 3 packs of the drug. Complex treatment of dandruff In addition to the above directions, in the treatment of dandruff, it is recommended to organize the right diet, enrich the diet of the baby with vitamins, and also to correct the disturbed metabolism. An integrated approach to the treatment of this pathological process will completely cure the child. However, to do this, you need to seek medical help from a doctor. Very often, not one specialist deals with the treatment of dandruff, but several at once, as this is a polyethological state.