To date, molluscum contagiosumto one of the forms of cutaneous dermatosis. Molluscs are considered a parasitic viral disease characterized by both local eruption and common on the mucous membranes and skin surface in the form of small spherical vesicles with a depression in the center. Contagious molluscum is a chronic disease. Causing skin damage, the infection can live in the body from 1 month to several years. Usually, rashes are seen from 6 to 9 months. Contagious dermatosis is a purely human disease, it can not tolerate animals or birds. The infection of a person occurs from the contact of a healthy person with an already infected one. The causative agent of the disease is a virus related to smallpox. The virus multiplies in the cytoplasm of cells. The shape of the rashes is rectangular or oval.
Causes of development of molluscum contagiosum
As already mentioned, the causative agent of thisdisease is the virus of molluscum contagiosum, which many experts attribute to smallpox viruses. Modern medicine today does not allow to completely get rid of the causative agent of this viral disease due to the fact that it remains in the DNA structure. Of course, it is possible to avoid recurrence of the mollusk by strengthening human immunity. As a result of the decrease in the protective reaction of immunity due to the action of adverse factors on it, molluscum contagiosum is activated, due to this, all sorts of clinical manifestations of this disease occur. The place of skin damage by the virus of the molluscum contagiosum depends on how the infection occurred. An adult person usually becomes infected through sexual contact with the carrier of the virus, so the localization place, of course, will be the sexual (external) organs, the perineal region, the pubis, possibly the lower abdomen and hips (usually the inner surface). A molluscum contagiosum in children can affect any part of the skin, it is impossible to determine the place where it appears, since in this case the infection occurs by the household way (this situation is also suitable for adults who have non-sexual contamination). Most often, the development of the disease occurs in the case when the human body is weakened as a result of some disease, which implies a very high risk of infection of a person with a compromised immune system. This disease can also develop if there is an HIV infection (this situation usually occurs in adults who have been infected through sexual contact). When the disease is introduced into the skin of a person (in the cells of the epidermis), elementary bodies (oval inclusions in the upper layer of the skin) form. As a result of the increase in the size of the body, the mollusks become attached to the surface of the skin. Outside these rashes look like nodules, inside of which there is a granular mass. When merging, these lesions can occupy a skin area 2-3 cm in diameter. Of course, their distribution usually occurs singly, but occasionally it can be a group one.
Symptoms of molluscum contagiosum
Infection with the virus usually occurs through sexualcontact, but also there is a household way of transmission of infection (use of a patient's towel). Very often the infection becomes a pool, especially for young children. Before the appearance of tumors on the skin can go from several weeks to several months (in the area of the skin on which there is a tattoo, the latent state can reach 7 months). Clinical manifestations are dense nodules, in certain cases having pearly nuances that are painless in nature. Most often these are single formations, which can then grow on a very large area of the skin. These nodules can have a variety of sizes, from the grain to a large pea (there may be the formation of giant neoplasms, but in very rare situations). To open the bundle it is enough to apply pressure on it with tweezers, and you will find a granular mass of white or slightly yellowish color, in the composition of which there are many mollusciform bodies. Large neoplasms in their middle have a dent with a small hole. There are cases of the appearance of pruritus of the skin, which is characterized by a large number of neoplasms. There is a high probability that another bacterial infection may join, which in turn will lead to severe inflammation.
Diagnosis of molluscum contagiosum
The forms of molluscum contagiosum are distinguished by their development:
Usually it is enough to make a diagnosisthe usual consultation of a dermatologist, in rare cases, the content from existing neoplasms is taken for analysis. In the absence of inflammatory processes of the skin next to neoplasms, their limitations, as well as the presence of a cavity in the middle of a tumor with a small hole through which a granular white mass begins to emerge, it is fairly easy to make a correct diagnosis. In the case of taking contents from the tumor to study under a microscope, one can observe the detection of keratinized cells in small numbers against the background of a very large number of mollusc bodies. Thanks to research, it can be argued that the formation of corpuscles occurs in the depth of the epithelium, and the filling of cells with a virus occurs because of their increase in size and the ability to push back its nucleus. Locations of localization of mollusc neoplasms in children who have become infected by domestic routes, and adults with sexual infection are significantly different. In children it is almost always a person, when the skin clam in adults most affects the genitals, the lower abdomen and the anus region. Often people confuse this disease with the symptoms of varicella and varieties of syphilis, so you should definitely consult a doctor who will already prescribe the treatment.
Treatment of molluscum contagiosum in children
Locations of mollusc localization in a child may beare quite diverse: it can be the skin of the hands, neck, face, inner thighs and even genitalia. Feet and palms are never affected by the virus of molluscum contagiosum. Since the virus of the molluscum contagiosum has no special manifestations, except neoplasms in the form of nodules, it is confused with warts or with manifestations of measles and rubella. These diseases can be very easily distinguished by pressing the tumor with tweezers: when the skin is infected with a mollusc contagiosum, a granular white mass begins to flow from its center. Typically, this virus is affected by children attending pre-school institutions. Transmission of the virus takes place through household (clothing, toys, hygiene products, swimming pools) or bodily contact (epidemics of the disease are frequent in kindergartens). Timely detection of neoplasms on the child's body will prevent them from spreading to other areas of the skin. It should be remembered that reproduction of new growths is possible even after its removal, therefore periodic examinations of the skin of the child are needed. Children rarely recover themselves, therefore, the formation of giant nodules is possible, which is why one should consult a dermatologist to prescribe a treatment. Only after consulting and examining the patient's doctor, you can proceed to some kind of action. Removal of neoplasms (laser, liquid nitrogen, Volkmann spoon) should be carried out using anesthetics. Further, the treatment can be continued with antiviral agents and certain treatment of the skin areas on which nodules were previously located, in order to avoid their reoccurrence. Everything should be prescribed by a doctor. After all the neoplasms have been removed, it is necessary to wash all the child's clothes, bedding, and also to process personal hygiene items and toys. Prior to the onset of recovery, the contacts of the sick child with other children should be limited.
Treatment of molluscum contagiosum in adults
When diagnosing a virus in an adult patientthe doctor may suggest waiting until the body himself recovers. This proposal takes place in the absence of malignant or benign formations. The patient's body with normal immunity can itself overcome the symptoms of this disease in six months. In cases when the stage of the disease (the severity of symptoms) and the state of immunity of the patient do not allow waiting for self-recovery, the following methods of treatment are used:
- extrusion of the contents of the neoplasms, and then its scraping with Volkmann's spoon (after the procedure the skin is treated with iodine);
- treatment of neoplasms with antiviral ointments and immunomodulators;
- removal by current;
- cauterization with nitrogen;
- the appointment of a course of antibiotics (used for severe damage to the skin);
- laser removal of mollusks.
All methods of treatment are selected individually by a doctor.
Prevention of molluscum contagiosum
The main prevention measures rely, of course,on the timely diagnosis of the disease and its correct treatment, in this regard, you need to carry out regular preventive examinations of the body. In preschool institutions, regular replacement of bed linen is obligatory, and parents should monitor the hygiene of the child at home (change of linen, use of personal washcloth and towels, daily obligatory shower). In adults, the main measure of prevention is the confidence in the health of the sexual partner. In case of infection, you must give up sex.