Any child is the mostthe real center of the universe, especially in the first year of life. The slightest changes are noted - by how many centimeters has grown, how much gram recovered, what I learned. Moreover - all these changes are not simply tracked, but jealously compared with the same indicators for other kids. Most parents experience that their child in no way lagged behind their peers. Incidentally, this is not exactly the right approach - every child is a unique person, unlike anyone else. So it's stupid enough to measure all the crumbs under one ruler. However, certain standards for the development of the child still exist - and if your baby does not fit very much into them, you need to be alert. But only to be on the alert, and not to panic - only the pediatrician can really assess the situation. Therefore, seek help from a specialist, and do not make erroneous conclusions. Today we will tell you about the development of a 4 month old baby - it is at this age that the first active phase of growing begins. Believe me, you will not be bored, dear parents. And not only this month, but the next 18 years exactly.
Physical changes of the baby
4 month old baby is not at all like thata small screaming lump that was solemnly presented to my father on the porch of the maternity home - this is already a real man. His body undergoes a number of significant changes:
- Eyes and hair
The kid can appear with absolutely any hair- long or short, straight or wavy, light or dark. But in any case, these hairs - a temporary phenomenon and it is to 4 months they will be replaced by others. And the structure of hair or their color can radically differ from those that were at birth, so do not be surprised by such radical changes. The same applies to the color of the eye - as a rule, almost all babies at birth have light eyes, even if both dad and mother are brown-eyed. But by about 4 months, the color is changing, sometimes also very radically. True, it is worth noting that even now it is far from the final color - changes can occur up to the age of one year of the child.
Despite the fact that the fontanel is not completelyclosed, it is much smaller in size. Remember that there is no bone tissue yet - take extra care, protect your baby from head injuries. However, this applies, of course, not only to the kids. In addition, do not forget about the need to observe the thorough hygiene of the fontanel.
- Body mass
In the first year of life, one of the most importantindicators, followed closely by doctors, is the weight gain of a child. In the fourth month of life, the daily weight gain should be about 20 grams per day. Accordingly, by the end of the fourth month, the total increase should be about 700 grams.
- Circumference of head and thorax
In addition to body weight,The volume of the thorax and the circumference of the head. In 4 month old boys, the head circumference is approximately 42 centimeters, and the chest is 43 centimeters. Girls are usually more miniature - their head circumference rarely exceeds 41 centimeters, and the circumference of the chest is no more than 42. Of course, these figures may fluctuate, and sometimes very much, but in any case the volume of the chest should not be less than the volume head.
The child's vision at 4 months is much better - heclearly sees at a distance of about 30 centimeters. Not so long ago, every child's eyeball moved by itself, but now it is synchronous. Check it is easy - take any bright, eye-catching toy, put it at a distance of 30 centimeters from the eye of the child. Normally, the kid must catch it in the field of vision and focus on her look. Of course, if the toy is interested in your baby. Then start moving the toy - to the right, down, up, left - the eyes of the child should no longer mow. In the opposite case, immediately tell the problem to your child's doctor. By the way, doctors say that it is on the fourth month of life that a child begins to see the world in all colors. Very few people know, but the newborn child perceives all colors, as shades of white and black. That's why 4 monthly crumbs begin so actively to be interested in color things.
- Physical activity
By the end of the fourth month of life the child is veryconfidently holds his head even when lying on his stomach. Yes, and in the position on the back to raise the head to reach and examine your feet, for a little hero is no problem at all. The head of a small neposeda in general is rarely immovable - the kid is willing to turn her around, looking at such an unknown for him and terribly interesting world around him. In four months the baby can not be left on the couch or an adult bed without supervision - the child begins to turn over from the back to the stomach and back. If your baby still does not show such activity, you can try to help him. Turn the child on his back, very carefully take him by and help him turn over. But be careful - no sudden movements! Do this exercise several times a day and after a few days the baby will understand what will start to turn over on his own. And at first the child most often turns only on one side - this often worries the parents. In fact, it is not necessary to panic - this is a completely physiological phenomenon, which will very soon disappear. In order to force the child to roll over and onto another barrel, put on that side the most favorite toys of the baby.
Coordination of a 4 month old child swiftlyperfect - the child is fully able to reach and take the thing that interested him. Parents should remember this and do not leave unnecessary things near the baby. Otherwise, one day you will find your mobile phone or remote control from the TV in your mouth at the crumb - after all, it's still absolutely everything that's trying to get to the teeth. The favorite pastime of the child of the fourth month of life is to wave a rattle, gazing steadfastly at her. Or bend - unbend legs, as if with exercise "bike". By the way, by the way, the child most often keeps his legs bent in the knees. If you put the baby on his feet, he nachet crouch - a couple of minutes of such exercises a day perfectly develop and strengthen the muscles of the legs. However, it is not necessary to overuse it - the muscle overload to the child is completely useless.
- Other features
Sometimes parents are worried about the fact thattime gymnastics can hear a crackle in the knee and elbow joints. To be frightened of it it is not necessary - process absolutely normal, peculiar to all children. And this crackling is connected with the immaturity of the musculoskeletal apparatus - after about two to three months the crunching will stop. In the meantime, continue the gym, massage and everything will be fine. Another question that worries parents - is it possible to start putting the child in pillows? And it's good, because many mothers and fathers start to plant a child, without even thinking about whether they harm him. The baby is delighted, her mother releases a few free minutes - everyone is happy! However, doctors say that in no case should this be done! Early planting can cause irreparable harm to the baby's health - the back muscles of the child are very weak and simply can not support the weight of the body, and the spine - the immature and vertical position does not have the best effect on its position. You do not want to hurt your baby? So, wait a few months - believe me, they will fly very quickly.
Speech development of the child
As early as 4 months old baby shows activethe desire to communicate with adults - he begins to walk in response to an appeal to him, and already skips a lot of sounds. Even crying becomes different - not monotonous, but with a mass of emotional shades. And it is very important to talk with the child. Although, of course, he still does not understand the meaning of your words, but emotional babies even catch the emotional coloring. Tell your child about what you are doing at the moment, what is happening around you, how much you love him - all this will become the basis for his future vocabulary. Psychologists have noticed one regularity - those children with whom parents often talk a lot, and start talking very early. So do not be lazy and contribute to the development of your baby. Remember that children at 4 months are very sensitive to all sounds without exception, even quiet. And you do not have to talk about screaming - watch your emotions in the presence of the child, if you do not want to scare him. The same goes for loud sounds - falling objects, slamming doors, loud music. By the way speaking about music - almost all children like very quiet soft music. Strangely enough, but most of all they do not like children's songs, but classical instrumental compositions. Very many mothers and dads use these musical preferences of the child - it is necessary to include music, as soon as the kid ceases to be capricious. About the same effect, and the sounds of living nature - for them the child in most cases sweetly falls asleep. In addition, psychologists are confident that the development of a child who regularly includes musical compositions is much more harmonious. So, dear parents, do not be lazy - study the musical preferences of your young music lover and often spoil the child.
First teeth of crumbs
In the overwhelming majority of cases, the first teeththe child appears at the age of 5-6 months. But there are also such zubki-hurriedly, which make themselves felt by the end of the fourth month. Of course, this process can not but affect the state of health and behavior of the child. There are a number of signs on which parents can assume that the child began to cut teeth.
- The child worries, cries for no apparent reason.
- The kid became much more likely to wake up at night.
- A crumb actively pulls his hands and everything that gets into them, in the mouth.
- Clearly pronounced salivation.
In addition, often in a child during the periodteething begins problems with digestion, a cold may appear, the temperature may rise. Of course, despite the widespread opinion, these ailments are not directly related to teething. But the immune system is significantly weakened - hence the various diseases. Of course, in all children the process of eruption of teeth proceeds in different ways - it all depends on the individual characteristics of the child's body. There were suspicions of teething? To confirm your guess, look into the baby's mouth and examine the gums. In the place where the tooth will appear in the near future, the mucosa is red and the swelling is pronounced. Although sometimes there are teeth-partisans that appear without any previous signs, but this happens very rarely. Parents can easily alleviate the state of the child in this difficult period for him. First, be sure to buy special rings for eruption, filled with liquid inside. Before you give them to your baby, hold it in the refrigerator for a while, so that the liquid gets cool - but without fanaticism, you do not need a cold to anything. In addition, do not forget about the special gels that soothe the gums - relieve itching, reduce pain. In use, they are very simple - just rub the gel with a clean finger in the baby's gums and a few hours of peace of mind are assured to you. In a drugstore it is no wonder to get lost - there are a lot of different gels. But in principle, they are all the same, the difference is only in the manufacturer. So choose for your financial capabilities, there will still be no difference.
Feeding the baby
In order for the development of a 4 month old child to becorrect, its food should be high-grade. The most ideal option for such a crumb is mom's milk. First, it contains all the nutrients necessary to ensure that the child's physical development corresponds to the norm. But we must not forget about spiritual development - and breastfeeding directly affects it. Breastfeeding is more than just satisfying the child's vital needs, it is an act of tenderness, love, a pledge of future mutual understanding. You hold the child in your arms, speak tenderly to him, he feels your breath, hears the palpitation, feels the tenderness of his hands. This is useful for older children, and for a 4-month-old baby it is absolutely necessary. Numerous studies suggest that breastfeeding most favorably affects both the physical and emotional development of the child. Unfortunately, it is during this period that women often face a significant decrease in lactation. And, as a consequence, they refuse breastfeeding in favor of milk formulas. But in most cases this can be avoided - the decrease in lactation in the fourth month of breastfeeding occurs in all women without exception. But if the mother does not stop feeding her baby, in a couple of weeks the situation will stabilize. A child at this age should eat about 6 times a day if he eats a milk formula. But if you have preserved breastfeeding, you do not have to watch the time - the child himself will say that he is hungry. The average portion of the baby is about 180 grams. Although, of course, all children are different - someone eats with great enthusiasm, and someone can not force you. At the end of the fourth month, the time of the introduction of the first vegetable supplement is also necessary. But before this, be sure to consult your local pediatrician - perhaps, the health features of your baby will not allow you to enter the first lure right now. In addition, the doctor will be able to advise you what exactly should be used as the first complementary food. Do not forget to carefully observe the baby - if you notice a digestive disorder, difficulty breathing, skin rashes, stop feeding and immediately consult a doctor.
Sleep of the child
The normal development of the child is simply impossible withoutfull sleep, and to sleep such a kid should be very, very much. Healthy sleep contributes to the maturation of the nervous system, strengthening immunity. If the child's sleep is disturbed, it will be hard for him and his parents. At night, the child wakes up much more rarely - no more than two to three times and then for feeding, sleep becomes deeper. Ideally, the child should fall asleep around 10 pm, and wake up at 7 am. By about 11 o'clock in the afternoon the baby will fall asleep again and sleep for several hours, and my mother will have the opportunity to do her own business. The second daytime sleep of the baby is about five o'clock in the evening and lasts for two or three hours. But, of course, these are only general recommendations - parents should focus primarily on the biological rhythms of their child. Signs of fatigue, which tell mom that the child is tired and wants to sleep, are very obvious - the baby starts to turn his head rhythmically, yawns, rubs his eyes, sucks his finger and is capricious. Immediately put the crumb into the crib - if the baby is awake too long, it will be much harder to fall asleep. And all this as a result will result in a grandiose scandal. To ensure that your baby's sleep is strong, it is important to follow a few simple rules:
- Air temperature
Almost all parents are afraid of colds, sotry not to open the window again, and the child is striving to cover up warmer. However, this is the worst solution. If the child is hot, there can not be any quiet sleep - the child will constantly wake up and be capricious. That's why before going to bed the room must be checked. If you are so afraid of drafts - go out for a time with the baby in another room, or better still go for a walk. Sleep before going to bed is very, very useful! It will be sweet not only to sleep, but also to you! Do not cover your child with a warm blanket - at an air temperature of 20 degrees is enough thin baize.
- Baby bed
Before putting the baby in the crib, carefullyexamine it - on the sheet and diapers should not be wrinkles, crumbs, toys. The child's bedding should be made entirely of natural materials - the same applies to children's clothing. Whether to use a diaper is up to you. Someone believes that diapers are extremely harmful to health, although doctors say that this is not so. But in any case, in the Pamirs, the children sleep much more tightly - still, because the wet diapers do not bother them. By the way about the crib - very often parents postpone the purchase of a crib for later, and at first the child sleeps in a stroller. So - this is far from the best option - after all, the orthopedic mattress is definitely better than the slender mattress of the stroller. Yes, and do not forget that your baby will very soon become quite active and will be able to overturn the stroller. Of course, in the daytime the child is under your supervision and this will not happen. But suddenly the child wakes up at night?
Unlike Europe, we have a baby ina separate room is sleeping quite rarely - almost always the baby's bed is next to the parent. Of course, this is quite convenient, but only for mom. Your conversations, the sound of the TV, even muffled, light - all this does not have the most favorable effect on the quality of the baby's sleep. Yes, at first glance it may seem that the child is sleeping peacefully, not paying attention to external stimuli. But in fact, this is not the case - the quality of the child's sleep significantly worsens. Therefore, try to exclude them - put a crib in the quietest and darkest zone of the room, try not to make noise much.
During the first year of life, all children regularly,monthly, visit a doctor - did not become an exception and the fourth month. Your local pediatrician will measure the growth of the child, determine the weight, the indices of psychophysical development, assess the state of health. No less important is the conversation with the mother - the doctor will learn the peculiarities of the life of his little patient, give the mother the necessary recommendations that will never be superfluous. Be sure to discuss with your doctor the following important points:
- Your child's day schedule.
- The introduction of the first complementary foods - the amount, products, possible reactions of the body.
- Features of the vaccination calendar.
- Ask your doctor any questions you are interested in.
Parents often ignore suchpreventive trips to the doctors - they say, the baby is healthy, there is nothing to go to the polyclinic, something else will pick up. In principle, in this case the doctor must come home to the child, but alas, because of negligence, because of the shortage of medical personnel, this almost never happens. As a result, there is a risk that this or that problem goes unnoticed. And if this problem with health, and even serious? Can you imagine how this can all turn out? Therefore, do not play with fire and be sure to visit the pediatrician on time. Remember that a doctor can not conduct any manipulations with your child without your consent. So do not worry - you will keep the situation under control. That, in general, and all that we wanted to tell. Perhaps, this kid is not your first and quite experienced mummy, but nevertheless we hope that you have found something useful for yourself. After all, all the kids are different and it's hard to predict how your baby will grow. Yes, it is, in principle, and it does not matter - the main thing is that it grows healthy and happy.