In the first year of life a little miracle happeneda lot of amazing and unusual, not only for crumbs, but for his father and mother. Of course, parents carefully follow the development of their crumbs - after all, we want the baby to be the best! Well, or, at least, did not lag behind in development from peers. It was for such troublesome parents that we gathered all the necessary information - about the development of the child, about the lessons with him. But remember the most important thing - do not consider the slightest deviation from the generally accepted norm as a universal catastrophe! All the children are very individual and it would be foolish to row them all in one single comb. In an extreme case, if you are concerned about something, tell us about your fears to the treating pediatrician. He will definitely determine if everything is all right with your baby.
Physical development of the child
Your baby grows by leaps and bounds. He is no longer the crumb that lay in the crib and looked at the ceiling - he is already quite a full-fledged personality. Personality is individual, bright and unique. It is time for new research, discoveries, experience and knowledge. At this time, the most important person on Earth can perfectly move in space and travel. He learned to crawl well and tries to climb himself on a sofa or an armchair, gets up without the help of adults. Despite numerous falls, the kid himself, without any support, takes the first steps. He is so difficult - he has not yet learned how to bend his legs when walking, but still, he perseveres to go on like a little penguin, rocking and setting his legs apart. A touching picture, is not it? Although in fairness it should be noted that often to 12 months some babies already know how to walk well enough. And in a year and a half you can play with them in pursuit and hide and seek - it's very fun and fun. Try it at least once - you will not regret it! A lot of positive emotions are provided for you and your baby. In a word, all children develop differently, but in any case, about a year, all the children begin to walk. There are rare exceptions and the kid does his steps after a year - usually, if he has too much weight. But in any case, it is worth consulting with a doctor - in very rare cases, the lack of independent walking can indicate health problems.
- Fine motor skills.
A one-year-old has a very good graspmovements. He is no longer difficult to collect pyramids, build turrets and cubes, catch and throw a ball, roll cars on the floor. The kid learns the world in a practical way. At this age, he likes to sort everything out and collect it in his own way, so adults should take care of the baby being surrounded by complex toys. For example, on the principle of dolls and pyramids, which contain several objects in one whole. But remember that the habit of trying everything on the tooth in a year does not disappear. And so pay close attention to toys - they must be of the highest quality. You do not want the child to have paint on his teeth? Or worse - the toy would break off the small parts - it's terrible to think about how it will end. Therefore, do not save on the safety of your baby and buy only certified toys and special books for young children. By the way, very often moms and dads complain that their kids are tearing books. Parents should not be upset and worried about torn and painted pages in books and forbid crumbs to do it. So he learns the physical structure of things, their functionality and use. If you prohibit these actions, then at a later age, for example, a teenager, your offspring will more than pop in textbooks and on the desks, not seeing anything strange or bad in it. Believe me, sooner or later he will take his own - something that he was not given in his earliest childhood. A child is a child. And in its very nature it is laid down to break down machines, to tear books and turn off the heads of puppets. Your task is to reduce the damage to a minimum. That is why all toys designed for children of one year of age, collapsible. Collected - dismantled - and the sheep are whole, and the wolves are full. The toy is intact, and the child's need is satisfied.
Gymnastics is not only very useful to children, but alsobrings a lot of positive. Kids really like to skate and jump on the "ball" - fitball. Usually, they start practicing at the age of two weeks, but also one-year-olds experience a lot of fun when they are rolled on a ball. In addition, such activities at the age of the year are also useful for good intestinal work and muscle tone. In addition, the child learns to group, which is also very important - he has very, very many falls. Using mother's, and most often father's hands and shoulders, the child learns the first gymnastic exercises - upheavals, somersaults, jumps up, exercises for the development of coordination of movements. The kid is fun when he is thrown up and circling his hands, rolling on his shoulders. A cheerful mood - this is one of the most necessary conditions for the proper development of a small mischief. But do not be too zealous - be careful. First, the child can be very frightened, even if a second ago he burst out laughing contagiously. Secondly, the child's vestibular apparatus is still underdeveloped and the baby can become corny bad. Thirdly, the bones of the baby and its ligament are very fragile - you can not calculate your strength and harm the child. Therefore, everything should be in moderation - you should not throw a crumb to the ceiling and catch it by the feet - leave such an extreme circus trick-or-go.
It is very useful to do baby massage. And this does not require special skills and adaptations. It is enough to make an easy massage, telling a funny story or a joke, for example, such a thing known as "rails-rails, sleepers-sleepers, the train was late ...". Simple movements - stroking circles - are able to create real miracles. Watch your hands - if you do not want the massage to cause the displeasure of the baby, they should be dry and warm. A nail - a short and filed. Be sure to use the most common baby oil - it will increase the effect of the procedure. Of course, all this is true only for healthy children. If a child suffers from a disease, be sure to talk with your pediatrician before starting a massage. And in any case, you should not try to do the massage yourself in the event that the child was appointed by his doctor. Of course, your strokes will be pleasant to the kid. But there will be no sense from them.
Curiosity of the child
One-year-old boy shows his curiosityabsolutely in everything that sees, hears, feels and feels. He perfectly orientates himself in the space of his home or apartment. He knows the location of furniture, looks in his favorite and accessible cabinets, opening them and pulling out various items, which can be not only children's toys. Of particular interest to the small researcher are kitchen utensils and utensils - spoons, bright plates and bowls, lids for cans, especially multi-colored and with different patterns, various forms and many other "mother's toys", such as perfumes, creams, beads, earrings.
- Adult toys
"Daddy's toys" also cause a keen interest inkids - especially flashlights, wires, mouse from the computer. Much attention is paid to "my mother's" and "father's" clothes and shoes, with a subsequent fitting. Cell Phones! Sometimes their parents search for them for a long time, then look under the bed, then in boxes with children's toys, and find them in the most unexpected places - in shoes or shoes, in a washing machine, in a kitchen cupboard. But to select and forbid the kid to play with a mobile phone is a mistake. After all, using the tube in the game, the child learns to say "Hello!", "How are you?", "... I'll be coming soon" and other phrases heard from adults, while talking on the phone. Kids are very observant and they like to imitate their parents and learn from them. Therefore, if the phone is so expensive, think of a joint game, so that your favorite device is always in sight, and then try to distract the new occupation of the baby.
Children love to look in the mirror and smilehis reflection, sometimes merrily grimacing. It can even be useful to bring a child to the mirror, when he is naughty, to calm the cries and tears. The kid loves himself in joy - crying, he will kick and deny. To the great regret, many parents believe in the old omen, which says that the child can not be looked in the mirror. And thereby depriving the child of a mass of pleasant impressions.
Development of a child in 1 year involvesimprovement of motor functions, motor skills, hearing and speech. The best and most pleasant way to help a kid form and improve basic and necessary skills is to play in all its manifestations. Young children love to play, and the gameplay is their pastime. Parents can play with the baby in cubes, balls, cars, pupae and much more. Who else but you, what exactly will interest your child?
In a year and a half, the karapuz can be carried away by drawing. It is best for the baby suitable soft pencils and colors - gouache. Finger paints are still inferior in color saturation and picture quality. After all, to create the first masterpieces a small artist will be together with his parents, who, for sure, are interested in showing their joy what can be thought out and done with the help of paints, brushes, pencils and paper. By the way, gouache is well washed and washed off. Although, of course, and about finger paints should not be forgotten - they are very good at developing the chalk motor skills of the child. And, in the end, the children just adore them. So why deprive the crumb of pleasure? Just prepare well, so that you do not get upset about the soiled couch and the stained clothes. First, put on your old clothes, which you do not mind. Secondly, prepare a sheet of Whatman - an ordinary album leaf for the flight of a fantasy of one-year-old crumbs will clearly not be enough. And, finally, cover everything around with plastic wrap. And, incidentally, it is not superfluous to prepare a bath - believe me, at the end of the creative process, it will be needed not only for your baby, but for you.
- Than to occupy the kid?
It often happens that mom and dad are busyhome affairs, and the kid requires attention. When parents prepare, it is possible to give the child some safe kitchen objects - beautiful bowls, plates, mugs of unbreakable material, napkins and many other things that will attract his attention and cause interest. It will be better if mom or dad show what you can do with these items and how they can be used in the game. Often the kid is able to invent himself a game with new adaptations. It will be useful for him if adults start accompanying their household chores with children's songs and poems, counters, the reproduction of which the child will soon surprise relatives and friends. But watch closely with what exactly the child is playing - he is still very small and can get hurt. The great imitator constantly looks at his relatives and repeats various actions and movements - he learns to clean his teeth, eat with a spoon and fork, drink from a cup, dress and take off his shoes, etc. The main thing that is required from the closest people who are next to him is to always be responsive and accessible to the attention of the baby, listening to his questions, speaking, trying to explain and show a new miracle for him. Indifference and anger greatly inhibit the development of a one-year-old child.
Perhaps you will be surprised, but the one-year-old does notonly remembers the words, but also the melody, and also catches the rhythm and begins to move to the music. Musical instruments play an important role in the development of the child in a year. Many babies like rhythmic tapping and beating on the drum, watching the piano, guitar and other musical instruments. The child has a desire to try to play on them. But most of all he likes to move in time with the music, catching its rhythm. From this moment the small musician masteres the first skills of harmonious-progressive movements and adds his individual creative potential to new skills. Do not ridicule the child and do not bother him - who knows, maybe you are growing a future musician or singer! Child psychologists strongly recommend that parents put different musical compositions for their children. Of course, Zemfira or the "Ocean Elzy" is not the best choice for this age. But any classical music will come in handy.
When a cute creature turns a year, he is alreadycan pronounce not only different sounds, but also some simple words - "ma-ma", "pa-pa", "give" and other sound combinations. The baby is happy to reproduce the voices of some animals - cats, dogs, birds. In a word, a small bird called Govorun. By the way, it also has a rare mind and wit and very quickly grasps everything new. The more parents communicate with their child, the faster he learns to speak. The development of speech is facilitated by reading children's poems, fairy tales, pronouncing counts, jokes and rhymes, listening to music with children's songs, watching good and good cartoons, especially musical ones. They repeat small verses and even fairy tales heard from adults, funny phrases and Hochma. Some words uttered by mom, dad, grandmother, grandfather and other relatives can cause unrestrained laughter in the child. Later he will get tired of laughing at the same thing, but he will remember the word or phrase and, possibly, will use it later in his speech. Even if you do not have enough time to read a little book, still communicate with it! Tell us about the weather on the street, what your plans for the day are, in the end, describe the actions that you are doing at the moment. Perhaps, at first the child does not understand everything, but his vocabulary will quickly replenish. And very soon your monologue will turn into a full-fledged dialogue. Observations of the development of the baby in a year have shown that the child learns "bad" words instantly, therefore it is desirable for adults to monitor their speech and protect it from bad interference. If on the playground or in the park you hear someone's abuse or abuse, it's better to go somewhere else. Of course, if you are brave and strong, it will be right to make a comment to someone who swears. Some crumbs already in one and a half year can perfectly connect words in small phrases, expressing, thus, requests, feelings, the warm relation to native and close, surrounding world. And others just barely babble - all this is a variation of the norm. But if the crumb does not utter any sounds at all - this is a serious reason for alarm. As soon as possible, seek medical help to avoid possible hearing problems. It is always worth remembering that the beloved is a constant observer of the actions and actions of people around him, especially his parents. And much depends on the parents. It is at this early age, when the main directions in the development of the child's personality are laid, which will determine his actions, character and actions already in the further conscious and independent life of a mature person. Helping to create the world for her baby, Mom and Dad improve their own, supplementing it with new, original, often unusual ideas and their solutions, developing their individual creative potential. When the most expensive person on Earth celebrated his first birthday, parents are again able to believe in miracles! And appreciate this magical time - it will never happen again. Only a few years will pass and you will still remember with nostalgia the time when your karapuz only began to comprehend the world. But time flies so fast!