All parents without exception know how difficultto raise a baby. At every step of the crumb can face such a phenomenon as childhood infectious diseases, which are very widespread. Experienced parents who are no longer the first child, know well how to behave in this or that situation. So, for example, if their child has chickenpox, treatment will not be difficult for them. But the newly mums and dads, faced with the slightest malaise, not to mention childhood viral diseases, are very, very afraid, often losing the ability to reason with reason. It is for young parents and the information in this article is intended. Below are detailed descriptions of the main childhood diseases that most children face in the process of growth. As a rule, most childhood infectious diseases begin in a very acute form, with a significant increase in body temperature. In addition, all children's infectious diseases are extremely contagious - very easily transmitted from one child to another. That is why, as a rule, single cases of childhood diseases are extremely rare in a single settlement, most often they are epidemic. The most widespread for today have received such children's skin diseases and others, as:
- Chicken pox or, in common parlance, chickenpox
- Pertussis and others
The epidemic of these diseases is oftenoccurs in preschool institutions. As a rule, when a child with a childhood infectious disease is identified in the kindergarten, the health worker of the garden and the clinic, to which the kindergarten belongs, proceed as follows: the diseased crumbs are isolated either at home or, less often, in hospital conditions, depending on from the baby's well-being. And the children who were in contact with them are placed in quarantine and physicians watch their condition. Although, frankly speaking, all these methods are usually very inefficient - after all during the incubation period the child looks perfectly healthy, but successfully transfers the infection. And so if one group is sick in a group, all the other kids are ill. However, parents should not be afraid and, moreover, refuse to visit kindergarten only because of fear that their child may become infected with a child's infection. During an outbreak in the city, a child can become infected with a child's infection in many other ways - when traveling on public transport, going to a supermarket. In the end, the causative agents of the disease can bring home adults, on clothes and shoes. And although the speech in this article is not about intestinal diseases, we can not mention them at least briefly. The greatest prevalence of intestinal diseases is in the summer. One of the most common causes of the disease of children with intestinal disorders is the elementary failure to observe the basic rules of hygiene. The causative agent of intestinal infection can enter the children's organism in various ways - through food, water, dirty hands. Also very often the cause of the disease is not enough heat-treated meat. For such intestinal infections characterized by a sharp and sudden onset - the child complains of pain in the abdomen, he begins to exhausting vomiting and diarrhea. Infant intestinal infections are extremely dangerous, as in young children very strong dehydration develops very quickly, which can lead to the most unfortunate consequences. At the first signs of the disease, you should immediately seek medical help.
What should parents pay attention to?
There are a number of signs that parents should pay special attention to. So, parents should consult a doctor if they notice:
The appearance of a rash always causes parents to hammeranxiety. In most cases, daylight saving time is a mild sweating. However, the rash is also a true companion of diseases such as scarlet fever, rubella, chicken pox. In addition, the rash can also accompany various allergic reactions. In this case, the rash occurs and spreads very quickly, seemingly resembling burns from the nettle.
- Increased size of lymph nodes
As a rule, enlarged lymph nodes in the childindicate the presence in the body of an inflammatory process, which can be both local and general. In very rare cases, inflammation and enlargement of the lymph nodes in the baby may indicate the presence of blood diseases in the child. In the event that parents have found an inflamed lymph node at their crumbs, they should immediately seek medical help. Very often parents make the same mistake - they begin to warm up the nodes. However, this can not be done in any case, because you can cause suppuration of the lymph node.
- The emergence of hyperthermia - an increase in body temperature in a child
The rise in temperature often accompaniesalmost all known childhood infectious diseases. In some cases, the temperature can be increased only slightly, and in other cases - to critical levels. However, parents should remember that a slight increase in body temperature can also be associated with increased motor activity of crumbs and excessively warm clothing on it. However, of course, the temperature will be raised slightly, to readings of about 37, 2 - 37, 5 degrees.
- Pain in the abdomen
In the event that your baby shows an obviousanxiety, you should try to find out if his tummy does not hurt. Very often a child, by virtue of his age, simply can not express his feelings with words. But pain in the abdomen can be symptoms of serious enough diseases. In the event that the child complains of abdominal pain, it must be laid, not fed and not watered before the doctor comes. In no case can you put heat on your stomach!
- Loss of consciousness
In a small child, loss of consciousness cantestify to the presence of the following problems: intracranial pressure, infectious diseases, heat strokes. Sometimes loss of consciousness is accompanied by hyperthermia (fever). In any case, what would not cause a loss of consciousness in the child, this serves as a serious indication for the immediate call of the ambulance brigade.
The most common infectious childhoodthe disease is chicken pox, or, as it is called in the people, chicken pox. People can survive with chickenpox only once in their life, after which the body produces lifelong resistant immunity to the causative agent of chicken pox. Most often the disease is affected precisely in childhood, and chickenpox takes place in children is much easier than in adults. Parents should have an idea of what is the causative agent of the disease, how the illness proceeds and what consequences for the child's organism can turn out. The causative agent of chickenpox is transmitted by airborne droplets, that is, through the upper respiratory tract and mucous membranes, including through the eye mucosa. It is because of this way of spreading the disease and got its name of chickenpox or chicken pox. Most often, chickenpox is affected by young children visiting kindergartens. Chickenpox is an extremely contagious disease, so a sick child should be immediately isolated from other children.
Symptoms of chickenpox
The first signs of chickenpox do not appear earlier than14 to 20 days after the first contact with a sick person. This is how long the incubation period of the disease lasts, during which the pathogen located in the body of the child does not manifest itself in any way. The minimum incubation period ever recorded by physicians was only 7 days. After the expiration of the incubation period, the child's body temperature rises sharply and to a considerable extent - up to about 39 degrees. In the event that the temperature increase was not accompanied by the appearance of a rash, the onset of the disease could be taken as a banal respiratory infection - the child complains of a headache and a general malaise. Immediately after the increase in body temperature, the baby begins to develop rashes on the skin. First appear flat pink spots, which after a few hours are filled with liquid contents and take the form of bubbles. Many parents try to squeeze them out, believing that the disease will pass faster. However, this is by no means the case - squeezing bubbles can only worsen a child's condition and lead to the appearance of multiple scars. The first few days of rashes in children with chicken pox are very abundant. And they are localized not only on the skin, but also on the mucous membranes - in the mouth, on the genitals. The rash is almost always accompanied by an extremely strong itch and the child is constantly trying to scratch it. Do not allow the child to comb rashes, as this can lead to infection in the wound. The course of the disease in children is undulating - some vesicles disappear, new ones appear. The appearance of rashes usually occurs in the first 4 days of the disease, after which it goes to a decline. On the place of the bubbles appear crusts, which gradually disappear themselves completely without a trace.
Treatment of chicken pox
If chickenpox in children, treatment should beginimmediately. The next question that needs to be addressed is the treatment of chickenpox. The first and most common mistake of parents is self-administration of antibiotics. This is a fundamentally erroneous approach to treating varicella. The causative agent of chickenpox is the virus, so taking antibiotics is absolutely useless. The only case when the use of antibiotics is justified is an attached bacterial infection. But in this case, only a doctor should prescribe an antibiotic. The methods of treatment of chickenpox, despite the commonality, in each case may vary. Bacterial infection is associated most often because the child combs the rashes and infects infection. That is why it is so important for parents to ensure that children do not scratch the itchy blisters. Of course, if the child is very small, the exhortations and prohibitions can not achieve anything. The parents are under enormous pressure - to watch their baby around the clock, to distract him from scratching the bubbles. At the time of treatment, pediatricians advise the child to comply with bed rest - especially in the first few days of the disease. Always change the bed and underwear of the baby every day. This measure will significantly reduce the number and intensity of new rashes. Also for the period of treatment it is necessary to refuse from water procedures. The only thing you can do is take a short bath with a pale pink manganese. The duration of the trays should not exceed 3 minutes. Specific treatment of chicken pox does not exist, as well as there is no medicine for chicken pox. However, there is a definite tactic for alleviating the condition of the sick child. Listed below are the main ones:
Consequences of chickenpox
A lot of parents are concerned about the question,what are the consequences of the chickenpox suffered by the child. Externally, chickenpox can leave traces on the skin in the form of small scars, at the place where there were bubbles. As a rule, this happens if the child has combed the wound and brought the infection, as a result of which there was a suppuration of the rashes. Serious negative consequences for the child's health are chickenpox rare. In extremely rare cases, there is a complication of the disease, such as encephalomyelitis - inflammation of the membranes of the brain. Also, some danger is the so-called congenital chickenpox. It occurs in the child in the event that a woman is infected with chickenpox during pregnancy. In the event that a pregnant woman who had not previously had chickenpox, had contact with a sick child, she needed to see a doctor as soon as possible. If the woman is vaccinated within the first 48 hours after the contact, this will help prevent the woman from developing the disease. However, parents, whose babies are sick with chickenpox, should not worry - in most cases, the disease with chickenpox passes without any complications and traces, provided that the child receives proper treatment and care.
The next most frequent infectious infectiousthe disease is rubella. Below, we will consider rubella-symptoms, treatment. The susceptibility of children to this disease is very, very high. This disease affects children of all ages - both babies, and older children. Especially dangerous this disease for an unborn baby - if the rubella is sick with a pregnant woman, there is a high probability that the fetus will develop serious malformations. The causative agent of rubella is a filter virus. This virus is unstable to various environmental influences and quickly dies. The source of infection is a sick child, and the way of transmission of the virus is airborne or contact, when skin is covered by a healthy and sick person. The greatest danger to others is a child on the third - fourth day after the onset of the disease.
Symptoms of rubella
The incubation period of the disease isapproximately two to three weeks. After this time the child's body temperature rises considerably - up to 39 - 39, 5 degrees. Within a few hours the baby will swell up various groups of lymph nodes - cervical, submaxillary, axillary and inguinal. Within a day, cough, runny nose, and sore throat are added to the above manifestations of the disease. On the third day the child can complain of headache, lacrimation and photophobia. Also on the third day the child has rashes on the skin, which have a reddish brown color. Eruptions begin from the face and scalp, gradually spreading over the entire surface of the skin. Between themselves rashes in a single do not merge, and after a few days disappear themselves, leaving no trace. In some cases the course of rubella is possible even without rashes. Quite rare, but still rubella disease can cause complications such as arthritis and rubella encephalitis.
If a child has rubella, treatment will also be only symptomatic:
- Compliance with bed rest and rest.
- Gentle diet is easily assimilated and rich in vitamins.
- Sufficient liquid.
- Reception of antiviral and antipyretic drugs.
Remember that medicationsthe child should be prescribed only by the pediatrician, taking into account the course of the disease and the individual characteristics of the child's organism. The treatment of rubella in children takes about 10 days, like all children's skin diseases.
Another very widespread childInfectious disease is a child's whooping cough. Pertussis is a bacterial disease, the causative agent of which is a bacterium called bordetella. To the effects of the external environment, it is also unstable and quickly dies, and therefore the path of transmission of this disease, respectively, is only airborne. The infectiousness of this disease is extremely high - when in contact with a sick person it is almost 100%. However, the range of the bacterium does not exceed one to two meters, so infection is possible only with close contact with a sick person - when communicating or playing together. That is why most often epidemics of pertussis disease erupt in children's educational institutions. The incubation period of this disease lasts different time for different children - for someone it is 6 - 7 days, and for someone and two - three weeks. Pertussis is divided by physicians into three stages of the disease:
- Catarrhal or prodromal period of the course of the disease.
- Paroxysmal period of the disease.
- Period of recovery of the child.
Catarrhal period of the disease
It lasts for one to two weeks. The child has a dry, exhausting cough. The temperature can remain perfectly normal at the same time, or rise very slightly - up to 37 - 37, 5 degrees. At this stage, the diagnosis of whooping cough is often difficult and the child is diagnosed with acute respiratory viral infection or bronchitis. Since there are no temperatures at this stage of the disease, the child continues to visit the kindergarten and continue to infect the children. It is during this period that the child is the most contagious. In the paroxysmal period of the disease, the intensity of the cough increases several times. The most strongly coughing sick child at night. Cough acquires a paroxysmal character, becomes spastic. In this period the cough becomes so specific that it is not difficult to diagnose the child's disease with whooping cough. The duration of the disease on average is 2 - 3 months, after which the disease is on the wane. The most severe course of the disease doctors notice in children of the first year of life. Because of severe attacks of cough, small children often have not only hypoxia, but also other, more serious diseases of the cardiovascular system.
And, finally, talking about childhood infectiousdiseases, it is impossible not to mention the mumps. Pediatric disease mumps is an extremely acute infectious disease, which inflames and, as a consequence, swollen salivary parotid glands. Pig, like other infectious diseases, does not immediately manifest itself - the incubation period of the disease is at least three weeks.
Symptoms of mumps
A child who has contracted a mumps, after the expiration of the incubation period begins to complain about:
- Deterioration of general health is weakness, apathy.
- A significant decrease in appetite - a child can refuse not only from eating, but also from eating.
- Raise body temperature to 39 degrees.
- Swelling in the hole behind the ear of the salivary glands, most often on both sides. The swelling to the touch is slightly dense, painful. Also, the child experiences painful pains when yawning, chewing and yawning.
- In the place of swelling, the skin is very smooth and shiny in appearance.
The first three - five days tumor will continueincrease and grow, while the child's swollen cheeks. Approximately on 6 - 7 days the reverse process begins - the tumor gradually begins to disappear, completely disappearing only on the 10th day. Together with the tumor the temperature decreases, the child's well-being gradually normalizes.
Treatment of the disease
Correct and timely treatment of mumps hasis extremely important, since the disease can have quite serious consequences and complications. Inflammation of the meninges, substances of the brain, disruption of the middle ear. However, do not be afraid - such complications, as a rule, arise only as a result of improper care for a sick child and treatment. In the event that parents notice swelling or swelling behind the ears or in the neck area of your baby, immediately put the child to bed and call a doctor at the house. Only a doctor can distinguish the disease with mumps from inflammation of the cervical lymph nodes. Diagnosis is extremely important for proper treatment. As a rule, in the usual course of the disease, treatment can be carried out at home. However, parents should keep in mind that the disease is extremely contagious, so the child should be isolated from all other family members. Throughout the whole period of treatment the child must remain in bed - bed rest is almost the main guarantee of successful treatment of mumps. The neck of the child should be warmly wrapped - for this purpose it is convenient to use a scarf, however, make sure that the scarf does not prick the child's skin. Wool scarves should be avoided. Do not apply wet dressings and alcohol compresses. The best compress, which greatly facilitates the condition of the ill child - is an oil compress. Compress should be applied as follows - moisten the gauze with warm sunflower oil, pre-mixed with the juice of aloe leaves in a ratio of 2 to 1, apply a napkin on the swollen glands, cover it with a plastic wrap and wrap with a warm cloth. It is advisable to leave this compress for the whole night. The diet of a sick child should consist of easily digestible foods. Be sure to follow the drinking regimen of the child - in no case should you allow the onset of dehydration. Remember that the child with mumps is extremely painful to chew, so cook soups, liquid cereals for him. Very suitable for the period of the disease are various purees intended for feeding children of the first year of life. In the event that a boy who has a pig affected his parents with a swelling of the testicles, or the child complains of their soreness, tie them gently with a wide rag of soft tissue. For boys, bed rest should be particularly strict, in order to avoid the development of complications from the reproductive system. Of course, this material does not list all existing childhood infections, but all the most common. Remember, all information is for informational purposes only and in no case should it be a guide to action. Diagnosis of the disease and prescribe treatment should only the children's doctor. And the task of parents is to strictly follow its appointments and recommendations. We advise you to read: