Baby and TV ... The TV has long been strongentered the life of modern man. And, of course, in the life of the child. A child watching TV is an absolutely ordinary phenomenon in the modern world. And not always parents think about whether children can watch TV and in what quantities. To answer these questions, you need to know what the effect of TV on children is. Why do children love television so much? Psychologists explain this fact by the fact that the image on the screen often distracts the child from the real world. And if, for example, when you go to a cinema, the child is fully aware of the unreality of what is happening on the screen, then at home he gets new information from the TV screen in an absolutely familiar home environment, and not in the cinema. This is what confuses the baby's brain, making it take for real action everything that happens on the TV screen. It is very difficult for a child to self-detach himself from what is happening on the screen, as a result of which this fascinating effect multiplies. A lot of controversy raises the question of "TV and baby". Many parents believe that very young children up to a certain age do not perceive what is happening on the screen at all. In part, this point of view is correct - children due to their age characteristics are not able to catch the essence of the actions not only on the screen, but also in life. However, numerous studies have shown that already monthly children are able to focus on the moving picture of the TV. And similar pictures extremely negatively influence the subconscious of crumbs, exhausting its nervous system. And getting used to TV is very, very fast. Surely, all parents have repeatedly noticed how the crumb joyfully began to laugh when they heard the sounds of a familiar advertisement or a musical screen saver of a program. Approximately from three - four-year-old age the child is already able to catch the sense of what is happening on the screen, however they absolutely do not know how to differentiate fiction that occurs on the screen and reality. That's why parents must be extremely scrupulous when choosing a program to watch a child. Try to avoid any programs containing scenes of violence, cruelty, scary scenes that can scare a child. The time for watching cartoons should also be limited. After all, cartoons, in any case, are a strong irritant for the child and overload his nervous system. The next aspect is how much can a child watch TV? Child psychologists recommend limiting the viewing time to about 15 minutes per day for children from three to seven years. Be sure to pay attention to what kind of cartoons your child is looking at. Do not let the kid watch cartoons in which cruelty and aggression are propagated. It is at this age that the child has a very strong ability to identify himself with the cartoon characters and, as a consequence, imitation of their behavior. By about seven years, children are able to distinguish between actions taking place on the screen from real life. At this time, you can slightly expand the range of watched broadcasts, but do not forget to make sure that they do not have violent scenes. The viewing time can also be increased to about half an hour per day. And only by the age of ten, children acquire the ability to fully perceive and objectively assess time and space, analyze, reason and make conclusions, and also to differentiate fiction from reality. At this age for the child to the fore when watching TV shows the meaning of what he saw, and not the visual images, as before. At about this age, children can already choose the TV programs they want to watch. However, at this age, parents must also follow the child's choice carefully. After all, it is at this age that he becomes self-conscious as a person. Revaluation of values, the formation of self and the formation of one's own opinion. And it is much more reasonable that in this period the negative image of television heroes, often not at all positive, should not influence the child's consciousness. Boys in this period begin to identify themselves with beautiful, strong and courageous heroes, who often turn out to be far from positive characters, and often frankly negative. Girls often try to be like television beauties, exhausting themselves with diets from the very early years. Also, parents often ask child psychologists about the age at which children can be allowed to watch television without the presence of adults. Of course, occasionally, if Mom needs some free time, she can put a disc with cartoons and leave a three-year-old crumb to look at them herself. However, such sessions should not become a rule. The child first of all needs the attention of the parents. Approximately from the age of seven the child can be allowed to watch TV on his own, provided that you know exactly what programs your child is watching. In general, watching TV together is a wonderful pastime and allows parents to direct the development of the child in the right direction. Parents should agree in advance with their baby about how much time he will watch TV. You can choose a certain number of hours per day or per week, but the child must know exactly. How much time can he spend in front of the TV. Of course, this does not help completely to prevent requests "Well, can you just sit a little longer?", But it will help to reduce vagaries to a possible minimum. In order to achieve maximum effect, do not concentrate the child's attention on the time of watching TV - it will be much more effective if you and the child together spend time choosing the programs or cartoons that the child will watch in the coming week. Such a measure will allow the child to feel himself a full participant in all events taking place in his family, and not be a simple passive observer. Remember that your agreement with the child needs to be reviewed anew every week. In addition to how much time the child will watch TV, it is necessary to discuss what time the child will watch TV - in the evening, on weekends or days. You can decide together with your child whether he will watch TV every day a little, or longer on weekends. Even after the child grows up and begins to choose their own television programs, parents should control what the child is looking at. And it is the word of the parents that should be decisive in choosing the programs to watch. Of course, it is very difficult for parents to constantly monitor a child, especially if he is already old enough. In order for the child to obey unquestioningly what his parents tell him, he must be taught the rules at the earliest age. If a child from a young age will know that the word of parents is the law for him, parents will not have to apply any sanctions. However, in no case should not you do not just forbid something to the child, not motivating his match. This can trigger a child's reaction. Try to always justify your decisions - this will help the child to take them faster.
TV in the children's room
Very many parents buy a TVespecially for the children's room. However, child psychologists say that the children's room is the most unsuitable place for a TV. If the TV is a constant background, it prevents the child from finding a more suitable occupation for himself than watching TV. In the event that the child has free access to watching cartoons and films, he certainly will not want to read books, play any development games, which is simply necessary for his harmonious development and self-awareness. Very often parents and children do not have the same views on any programs. What the parents like, the child may not like, and vice versa. Do not use your parental authority and simply forbid your child to watch his favorite TV shows and impose his point of view. It is much more reasonable to compromise, and together with the child, look at those programs that he likes, and those that you like. After that, be sure to discuss what you like and do not like the child, and vice versa. Perhaps after watching TV together you will be able to convince the child, and perhaps you yourself change your mind. No less questions from parents are caused by advertising, which in huge quantities are shown on TV. This question is most relevant for the smallest children. Already one-year-old crumbs admirably recognize the sounds of their favorite advertising, as well as the logos of the goods. However, the appointment of commercials children are able to perceive only about seven years of age. If we are talking about small children, the problem with advertising is solved very simply - just switch the channel, or turn off the TV. But with older children a bit more complicated. Parents should necessarily talk with children, explaining to them the purpose of advertising. This will help avoid hysterics in the store, when the child will demand to buy something in the store, which he previously saw in the commercial on TV. Very often parents, controlling that children do not see adult films and broadcasts containing scenes of violence and cruelty, quite calmly include the release of information programs, not paying attention to the presence of a child in the room. However, adults very often forget that the realities of life shown in the news release are often much more terrible and more violent than the scene of the bloodiest action movie. Try not to allow viewing of information telecasts by children under 8 - 9 years old. Little children are very hard to perceive other people's experiences and pain, very quickly and fully projecting all the misfortunes to themselves and their loved ones. Do not expose them to unnecessary psychological stress. If, after all, it happened that the child saw a scene containing violence or some kind of catastrophe, hug the crumb, gently calm him. This will create a child's illusion of peace and security. But this is the most important thing that is necessary for the psychological calmness of your baby. However, in any case, do not ignore what the child saw on the screen, and also do not try to simply translate the topic of the conversation. This will only exacerbate the psychological state of the child and increase his anxiety. Be sure to say what you saw, explaining to the child incomprehensible moments for him. Be sure to emphasize that every effort is made to save people, and people will not be abandoned even in the most dangerous situation. And the last thing to be mentioned, speaking of the influence of the TV, is erotic scenes. Of course, we do not even talk about sex and violence - parents should completely exclude all films and programs that may contain such scenes. However, often, and in films intended for family viewing, there are scenes of a light erotic nature. As a rule, small children do not pay any attention to such scenes. But if older children see this, they may have questions. Do not shy away from them - these scenes can be an excellent occasion to talk with the child about sexuality and the relationship between the sexes.
Child and computer
The next, equally exciting parentsThe problem is the influence of the computer on the child. The computer nowadays is practically in every house, and the acquaintance of children with the computer begins at the tenderest age. Often, a three-year-old crane is adroitly controlled with a computer mouse. And is it safe for the child? Is the computer harmful for children? As shown by numerous studies, even a short time spent at the computer, gives a significant load both on the psyche of the child, and on his visual system. A similar phenomenon is observed in 78% of all children, whereas a six-hour school day causes just as much fatigue in 43% of children. However, if the child becomes aware of fatigue caused by school activities, the fatigue caused by computer abuse almost always goes unnoticed. A child, carried away by the Internet or computer games, is in a state of heightened emotional arousal. And it is this emotional excitement that does not allow them to notice the onset of fatigue in time, and work with the computer continues on. As a result, fatigue accumulates, like a snowball, gradually bringing the child to full nervous exhaustion. And if there are absolutely small children sitting at the computer, there is no need to even talk about the harm of uncontrolled access to a computer. Often, if the parents are busy, the child spends almost all day behind the computer screen. And in the evening, moms are surprised why the child becomes so nervous, nervous and uncontrollable. The child can not fall asleep for a long time, but falling asleep, constantly waking up, or even just screaming in a dream. Parents begin to get nervous, buy children's soothing drugs. After all the measures have been tried, the parents will turn to the doctor. And imagine, what is the astonishment of parents when they learn from the doctor that the culprit of everything is such a harmless computer at first glance. However, fortunately, recently the parents began to worry more and more often the question "computer and children's health". Harm computers for children are often either underestimated, or greatly exaggerated. The first place is the issue of electric radiation from the computer. Measurements of the radiation level show that the x-ray radiation from modern computers does not exceed the permissible safe values for health. The same is true for electromagnetic radiation. However, if you are the owner of a computer of the past generation, you should keep in mind that these figures on the side and the back of the screen are slightly higher than normal.
Workplace equipment regulations
In addition, when deciding whether to standcomputer in the child's room, remember that a working computer can significantly change the characteristics of the air. The temperature after an hour of computer operation rises by 6 - 7 degrees, and humidity, on the contrary, decreases by 35 - 40%. Also in the room significantly increases the content of carbon dioxide - about 30%. Air is strongly ionized, it increases the number of positive ions, which most unfavorably affects the health and health of the child. By settling on the dust particles, the ions enter the respiratory tract of the baby that. In turn, often leads to a choking in the throat, the onset of coughing and tearing. When buying a good modern computer, all these negative manifestations are reduced at times, but some problems still remain. Parents should remember a few simple rules that will help avoid many complications:
- When choosing a location for the computer, you need to make sure that it is either in the corner, or the back wall is facing the wall surface.
- In the room where the computer is, you need to conduct a thorough wet cleaning every day. It is not recommended in this room to make carpeting.
- Before the beginning of the session with the computer, and also after its termination, it is necessary to wipe the screen with a special napkin to remove dust.
- As often as possible, ventilate the room in which the computer works.
- Also, in no case should we forget aboutThe need to humidify the air in the room where the computer is running. You can hang wet towels, however they need to be constantly changed. Perhaps the aquarium in the room will be the best solution.
Influence of computer on child's health
But these are not all the complications that canarise as a result of abuse of work at the computer. And children are exposed to negative effects much more than adults. This fact is explained quite simply. A child of 6 - 7 years old is a rapidly developing organism. The bone system is formed, including the carpal bones, and prolonged work with the mouse can be harmful. During this period, visual refraction of the eye also undergoes significant changes - and an excessive load on the eyes can lead to a significant decrease in visual function. The influence of the computer on the child's vision is quite negative. That's why the time for working with a computer for a child should be strictly regulated. While working with a computer, children constantly face complex spatial and logical tasks. In order to successfully cope with them, the child must have a well-developed abstract thinking, the ability to compare and analyze. Of course, all this causes the strongest fatigue of the child. In addition, he constantly has to perceive at a close distance a sufficiently large number of visual images - small pictures, letters and other symbols. Also, the child constantly changes focus from the screen to the keyboard and back. All this leads to the strongest tension of all the eye muscles, which also contributes significantly to the light pulse of the screen. The load on the eyes when working at a computer is significantly different from that for other types of activities - drawing, reading and even watching TV. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the fact that when working at the computer the child constantly keeps a static (immobile) posture, which is an additional burden on the child's organism. Talking about the influence of the computer on the development of the child, one should not forget about such an important factor as the nervous and emotional stress while working with a computer. Especially strong emotional tension occurs at a time when the child is playing computer games. This is explained by the fact that gaming processes often require a quick response. Such a strong concentration of nervous and mental processes often turns out to be an unbearable task for the child and can cause not only fatigue, but also nervous breakdowns. Remember that the influence of the computer on the child's psyche is often unpredictable. To ensure that activities for children on the computer have as little negative impact on the child's organism, observe certain precautions:
- The first thing that parents need to do istake care that the workplace of the child was properly arranged, and the child felt comfortable. Both the computer chair and the table should correspond to the growth of the child. The chair must be with the back, and the distance from the eyes to the monitor should be at least 70 centimeters.
- Be sure to take a break every 10 minutes. Very useful gymnastics for the eyes.
- Buy for the child only high-quality licensed programs designed specifically for his age. Try to avoid computer programs and games containing scenes of violence.
Under no circumstances should uncontrolledpastime of the child at the computer - it can very adversely affect his health, both emotional and mental. Remember that there are clear recommendations of children's psychologists and oculists about how long it is permissible to spend at a computer for children of different age categories:
- Children between the ages of three and seven can safely spend at least 15 minutes a day at their computer, at least one day a week, preferably the computer is not included at all.
- Children between the ages of 7 and 10 can alreadyspend a little more time on the computer - 15 to 30 minutes. However, the rule of one day without a computer remains relevant for this age category.
- Children between the ages of 10 and 14 may beat the computer for one hour per day, but it is desirable to split the session twice. During work, do not forget about the need to take breaks for visual gymnastics.
- Children from 14 to 16 years can spend about two hours a day at the computer, but they should not forget about the need to take breaks in their work or games on computers.
In the event that your child has any -any problems with vision, to admit them to work on the computer is possible only after a preliminary consultation and with the permission of the child's doctor - oculist. In addition, remember that the normal age norm of time for the computer for each age group should be reduced exactly twice for a child who has visual problems.
Child and Internet
The Internet also causes no less discussion. If the problem for parents of small children is not actual, then parents of more adult children have to solve the problem of controlling children when using the Internet. Unfortunately, most often you can observe two extremes - either parents have absolutely no control over this process, and the child has completely free access to the Internet, or, on the contrary, parents completely deprive the child of the Internet. However, neither the one nor the other measure is optimal. In our time it is difficult to imagine a world without a world wide web. On the Internet, you can find a lot of useful and interesting information, and for school children the Internet is a faithful assistant in school. Teaching aids, abstracts, materials for exam preparation and much more - all this will help your child in school. In addition, the Internet will save a significant amount of money from your family budget, since you do not have to buy all these tutorials in print. However, simply connecting the Internet and allowing a child to spend time on the Internet without any control on the part of adults is also extremely unreasonable. If, on the one hand, on the Internet you can have a lot of useful information, then on the other hand, on the Internet you can find a huge amount of negative information: scenes of violence, cruelty and frankly pornographic scenes. Of course, all this can have an extremely negative impact on the child's psyche. With this, of course, all parents will agree without exception. However, not all parents have the opportunity to stay with their children all the time. Yes, and in older children, such total control can cause a violent reaction of protest. Therefore it is much more reasonable to install a so-called "family filter" on the computer. There is a fairly large number of programs that allow parents to restrict children's access to those sites that may have a negative impact on the fragile child's psyche. In order that parents do not subsequently have to wonder how to wean a child from a computer, they must strictly follow all the above recommendations. It is also very important to ensure that your computer does not become your child's only hobby. Remember that for a normal child's harmonious development the child simply needs to lead an active lifestyle, spend enough time outdoors, communicate with peers. It is very important that the computer does not replace the child with all this. And only in the power of parents to follow this and strictly regulate the time that the child spends on the computer. Remember that both the TV and the computer are part of the life of modern man, but do not become the meaning of life and the only way to spend time. We advise you to read: