The problem of seasonal hot water shutdownalmost every city. But if urban residents are concerned about this for only a few weeks per season, then suburban settlements need hot water throughout the year. And in the country farms and does not provide a centralized highway. What to do? The output is simple. Manufacturers of household equipment are trying to keep up with the rapidly changing needs of the population, so they propose to solve the problem of hot water with the help of stationary heaters. Having studied the proposed types of equipment and taking into account your needs and living conditions, you will surely find an acceptable option that will suit your desires and possibilities. In today's article we will consider several types of flow heaters. We will explain their advantages and disadvantages and try to answer the main question - how to choose the right water heater.
Types of water heaters
In order to continue the conversation about the pluses andminuses of water heaters offered, we will make a short excursion on the main types of devices designed for water heating. Manufacturers of water heaters divide the equipment into two main types: accumulating and flowing. And first of all you have to choose between them. Therefore, it is necessary to know the difference in the types of structure and method of heating water. Storage water heater The storage tank water heater has the form of a tank of various capacities with a TEN inside (a device that heats water). It differs from the flow heater by the accumulation of hot water. That is, the water that has entered the tank is heated to the set temperature and is maintained for the required time. The main disadvantage (or, most likely, inconvenience) of a storage water heater is its relatively large dimensions for apartment use. However, this problem is more than compensated if the heater of this type is installed in a spacious country house. Another disadvantage is the need to pre-enable the equipment for heating water, and in the case of drinking water from several water intakes (for example, at the same time in the kitchen and bathroom), a hot-source supply can be quickly consumed. A significant advantage, which is really decisive in choosing the type of water heater, is unlimited connection to a residential power outlet and economical energy consumption, which makes the storage water heaters popular and affordable for any family. Flow-through water heater As this article is devoted to flow-through water heaters, we will dwell in more detail on this type. A flow-through water heater is a stationary equipment designed for heating water. Works on the principle of "here and now". That is, its main difference (which, undoubtedly, is also its advantage over a storage "thermos") - instantaneous heating of water at the time of its direct use. Consequently, there is no need for a storage tank, which in turn makes it compact and convenient to use in small rooms. But then the fun begins. Read carefully and draw logical conclusions. We hope, further information will help you to choose the right type of water heater. Both accumulating and flowing water heaters, in turn, are classified by source of energy into gas, electric, liquid and solid fuel. The latter can be classified as industrial. For their installation, more stringent requirements are required, for example, a separate boiler house and others.
- Flowing water heater - gas
With regard to gas flow-through water heatersor, in the old way, gas boilers, one should note their high energy efficiency of energy consumption. From the title it is clear that a gas burner is used to heat water in this type of device. And it's not a secret for anyone that gas is low-budget fuel. The modern gas boilers offered by manufacturers are included both by piezoelectric ignition and electric ignition. The spark and gas supply are automatically triggered when the crane is opened. Also in them there is no constantly burning wick, which makes them even more economical. Gas water heaters are small (17-19 kW), medium (22-24 kW) and high (28-30 kW) power. Naturally, choosing a more powerful device, you will get more hot water at the output. For example, for a shower you will have enough and low-power heater, and in case of simultaneous use of water from several taps (bathroom, kitchen), it is more expedient to choose a device with a power of 24 kW. So, the advantage of gas boilers is its economy and rapid heating of water. But the main drawback is not terrible for houses with existing chimneys, because the evolved chemical elements after the combustion of gas must necessarily be removed from the premises. And this requires a chimney! For private houses with centralized gas supply, where to make a chimney is not difficult, it is an excellent option to choose a gas water heater. In addition to the listed advantages, it is worth mentioning the safety of this type of burner. In the event of a malfunction (flame attenuation, malfunction of the chimney), the supply of gas ceases and the equipment is switched off. Unlike their older predecessors, modern devices are equipped with modulation burners that allow to regulate the operation of the equipment depending on the water flow rate, and can maintain a given temperature mode at the output. To the note: it turns out that there are two versions of gas heaters, with an open and closed combustion chamber. A closed chamber is characterized by a forced draft, for which there is not necessarily a traditional chimney.
- Flowing water heater - electric
Since the beginning of the "electrification of the whole country"many years have passed and now there is an outlet for an electric water heater in almost all apartments, country houses and country estates, which can not be said about gas supply. The advantage of electric heaters is their modest dimensions and the possibility to use a hot source in unlimited quantities. Due to these main advantages, electric water heaters are very popular during the seasonal shutdown of central hot water supply. As a rule, the heaters offered recently have an automatic switching system. That is, once you have opened the hot water tap, the heater immediately starts to heat up the consumed water. In the same way, the device turns off. Prices for electric heaters are low, but during operation, namely, when heated, electricity consumption rises at times. Although, when compared with storage devices, the average monthly energy consumption goes lower. But at the same time, the water temperature at the outlet is also lower. Some budget electric heaters are designed not for hot but warm water. And now about the most important when choosing an electric water heater, which consumers often do not attach due importance. To install an electric heater in a city apartment it is necessary to lay a separate cable of a certain section from the shield and install an auto-switch. In houses where the use of electric cookers is provided, the voltage allows the installation of high-power heaters. Since most houses have gas supply, before buying an electric water heater it is strongly recommended that you consult with the electrician of your home for the technical feasibility of installing equipment of a certain capacity. In most cases, you can install only a device up to 8 kW. Note: by installing a 3-4 kW water heater, you will get a small stream of hot water (3 l / min) at the outlet. And this is enough only to wash the dishes. If you want to take a shower, do not even think about buying equipment below 8 kW. And based on technical characteristics, it is possible only in houses equipped with a three-phase network. In old houses with traffic jams of 16 A, equipment with a capacity above 3.5 kW is strictly prohibited. Even in some new homes with meters 32-40 kW there are restrictions on the installation of equipment with a capacity of more than 6 kW. Keep in mind, negligent attitude to the requirements of the installation of equipment can lead to knocking out traffic jams and even to expensive repair of electricity supply throughout the house! Therefore, we once again draw your attention to the fact that the key moment in choosing a running water heater is the question of its connection. And it should be treated wisely and responsibly.
- Flowing water heater - non-pressure
According to the principle of operation, water heaters cansubdivided into two subgroups: pressure and non-pressure. Non-pressure water heaters, as usual, are provided with a crane at the inlet and at the outlet - with a shower head without a closing valve, since water coming from the water pipe must leave the device unhindered. Such equipment is suitable for use in dacha use. In view of the fact that the power of the free-flow heaters is in the 2-8 kW segment, it is not worth waiting for very hot water at the outlet. Basically it is purchased for installation in the kitchen or, as already mentioned above, as a summer shower in the garden. Undisputed advantage of non-pressure types of water heaters is the convenience of installation. The low power of such devices allows for the installation of equipment without additional special wiring. Sometimes, some "kulibin" change shower nozzle without a closing valve to a full-fledged cock. And it is believed that a pressureless water heater can be used instead of a mixer. Unfortunately, the equipment is not designed for water pressure and very soon goes out of order. Figuratively speaking, it "inflates", and it bursts.
- Flowing water heater - pressure
Pressure flow devices have two tubes: to the inlet and outlet of water. This device is installed by tapping into the riser of the central water supply, as it is done, for example, with counters. This method allows you to have hot water in any crane at home. The equipment is started automatically with the beginning of the water flow. Manufacturers offer two types of pressure heaters: single-phase (2-12 kW) and three-phase (3-30 kW). Undoubtedly their dignity is the presence of an electronic programming system. But from the shortcomings it is necessary to allocate a significant consumption of current consumed and a considerable cost of the equipment itself. Small flow-through heaters that do not require a special electrical installation (3-6 kW) perfectly cope with the heating of water in the summer. However, in winter (for example, in the event of an accident on the water supply line), you will not be able to heat the water to the required temperature. We explain why. A low-power water heater can increase the incoming cold water temperature by twenty-five degrees. Having a summer water in the faucet with a temperature of + 15 ° С, we add the delta to 25 ° С and get the water temperature + 40 ° С. Which completely satisfies the needs of many consumers. However, in winter the temperature of the water in the tap is no more than 5-7 degrees. Having made simple arithmetic operations (5 + 25), we get the water temperature at the outlet + 30 ° С. Naturally, such a "hot" water will cause your indignation and doubts about the working capacity of the equipment. But keep in mind, the water heater, most likely, works in the usual mode, just the parameters of the conditions have changed.
So, choosing a running water heater, you need to find out a few points, namely:
- the capacity of the equipment, that is, how many liters per minute is capable of giving the device output. As a rule, specifications are always prescribed in the attached documentation.
- Calculate the estimated hot water consumption per minute that is necessary for you.
We want to show you an easy way of countingwater consumption. For example, for showering: turn on in the usual mode for you water and put a ten-liter bucket. Calculate how long it will take to fill the tank. This will be your minute water consumption. That is, if the bucket is filled in one minute, then you need ten liters of water per minute. And if this process took only thirty seconds, then you need 20 l / min. In such a simple way, you can calculate how much capacity the water heater will suit you, and choose the necessary model of equipment. However, consider other indicators: the use of several cranes, climatic conditions and other.
- Find out in the Housing and Utility Committee whether it is possible to install equipment of a given capacity and what needs to be done to install it (additional wiring, meter replacement, three-phase network and so on).
- Specify the installation conditions: who will install the equipment, what is the cost of the service, the possibility of self-connection and the like.
- Pay attention to the warranty period of operation and the coordinates of the service centers.
- Be sure to ask the availability of spare parts in the region in case of need of repair and what is their cost.
Brief analysis of instantaneous water heaters
So, let's summarize the information together, so that you can correctly choose a flowing water heater. The flowing water heater is electric. Pros:
- unlimited supply of hot water;
- requires additional reinforced wiring, grounding, auto-switch;
- high power consumption.
The flowing water heater is gas. Pros:
- Low-budget operation (low gas cost);
- rapid heating of water.
- availability of central gas supply;
- presence of chimney;
Flowing water heater - pressure. Pros:
- compact size;
- use from different cranes;
- automatic on and off;
- electronic control system.
- high price;
- expensive operation - high energy consumption.
Flowing water heater - non-pressure. Pros:
- modest dimensions;
- temperature limitation sensor;
- the automatic device for power outages in case of malfunctions;
- standard wiring.
- poor performance;
- the only place of installation.
Thus, having studied the material provided,you can easily navigate in the types and types of running water heaters. And now you will not be difficult to choose the right equipment, suitable for you at the price and quality.