Listening to fairy tales, the kid dreams, plays, developsand ... grows up! Experts do not doubt that it is necessary to start reading a child from an early age. It's important to remember that this activity should bring pleasure to both of you. Children's psychologists no longer have any doubts: children, even the smallest, need books no less than parental love or good food. Although some parents still take this statement with skepticism: why do little children have fairy tales, if they do not even understand the meaning of simple words? But scientists have all the evidence: books not only help kids grow up, but also for the rest of their life instill in them a love of reading.
In the first reading
The first time the book for the baby will be primarilyan object of study that stimulates the development of all five senses, including the sense of smell and taste. To see this, it's enough to observe the behavior of a one and a half year-old child. After receiving the book at his disposal, he first strokes it, turns it upside down, puts it on the rib, and then sniffs, licks and pulls into his mouth! In order not to interrupt familiarity at the most interesting moment, make sure beforehand that the chosen edition is adapted for such extreme ways of "reading". It's not difficult: today many publishers compete in ingenuity, producing small-format books of "increased strength".
As in the Mirror
The first books not only bring the childsensual experience and pleasure from communicating with parents, but also teach him to be observant. Very soon the baby begins to look at the pictures. It is they who give him an idea of the world around him, so the illustrations are used invariably in children: for them this is the alphabet of reality. The kid quickly realizes that the pictures depict real things and phenomena. Studies, for example, confirm that even the smallest children quite rarely confuse the top and bottom of the picture. At ten months they already realize that the kitten pictured in the book and the cat curled up on the couch are not the same thing at all. Such a transition to the perception of symbols means the launching of thinking processes. Around this time, a small researcher discovers that the book is able to "talk"! On its pages "live not only pictures, but also words. Of course, it will not be possible to make this important discovery without your participation. The first book is always spoken by the mother's voice, and only after a few years it is replaced by the silence of the printed word. Thanks to your intonation, the plot acquires a special emotional value for it. Do you lack acting skills and creativity? A keen listener will forgive you for these shortcomings. The main thing is that you read a fairy tale with a soul, then your shyness or reservations he misses. In addition, every day practicing in the declamatory art, sooner or later you will certainly discover in yourself such talents as a reader and narrator, which you did not even know about before.
Time for communication
If there are pictures in the book, you can describe themin their own words or come up with their own story, when there are no signatures under them. First, describe the picture, then ask the child questions - in such simple ways you can revive a new image for the baby. Even at an early age, the child is fully capable of hearing a small story composed of the simplest words. This role is ideally suited to fairy tales, listening to which the baby will gradually replenish his vocabulary. During this period in mysterious and incomprehensible words for crumbs is a whole magical world. Do not try to turn reading fairy tales into cognitive lectures. A detailed analysis of each word with a digression into history will not leave room for imagination. If the child does not understand something, it's not scary. If he really needs to understand the meaning of an unfamiliar word, he will ask you for an explanation. And what if there is no time and energy to read fairy tales? Or the soul does not lie to this occupation at all? Of course, in the world there are many parents who, with the best intentions, forcibly force themselves every evening to perform this ritual ... In this case, psychologists give two tips: do not dramatize the situation and stop treating reading as a duty. The verb "to read" does not tolerate an imperative mood. Do not force yourself only because it is useful for the development of the baby.
Acquaintance with the artistic style of speech is not easyenriches the children's vocabulary, but also gives the child certain guidelines. Unlike the language of everyday communication, which almost always correlates with the present moment, the story told in the book sends the reader to both the past and the future. In addition, the story always has a beginning and an end, between which in a logical sequence unfolds the twists and turns of the plot - than not a model of life itself! Another important thing for a baby is the quality: no matter how many times he read the same book, no word will be lost from it. This immutability and predictability reassures the child, gives him confidence in the strength of his own existence. The grandfather will necessarily pull out the turnip, and the hen will certainly bear the testicle tomorrow, and in a month, and in a year. If the plot of the fairy tale changed every evening, what would convince a toddler to part with the parents that the father or mother will not be different by the next morning? It is the need for stability that explains the fact that a small lover of fairy tales is ready to listen to a familiar story hundreds of times.
Education of the senses
A good book can be recognized primarily bythat burst of emotions and feelings that it causes in us. A child, like an adult, finds in it a reflection of his joys, sorrows, fears, and sometimes where you do not expect it. The kid, for example, can see a tiny bird in the corner of the page and, ignoring the other details of the drawing, insistently ask you to answer the question: "Why is the little bun sitting on a branch alone?". And here it is not surprising to get lost: in a fairy tale - then nothing is said about this! But such a reaction is quite natural: the child gives vent to his emotional experiences, because he is also concerned about the eternal human fears of loneliness, death, separation. Scary stories also perform an educational function, so if the kid asks you to read a fairy tale about the evil giant at night, do not try to dissuade him from this venture. To forbid such books is also not worth it: the child has the right to choose what to listen to. If he orders you a terrible story, then now he needs to experience a sense of fear. To get rid of negative emotions, the child must lose it, and the tale just allows him to do it.
On the soul and body
Let the baby listen to you the way he wants. If your one and a half year old kid, as soon as you have read the first two sentences, runs off to the other end of the room to play with the cars, do not be discouraged. This does not mean that he will never love books. It's just that in some children the need for motor activity is higher than for others. During the joint reading, the crumbs may suddenly have a desire to cuddle closer to you, but within a minute he can urgently need to make a circle around the room ... In these and many other ways the kid tries to survive the emotions received from the story. His feelings he spills out in movements and gestures. But it can also happen that one night a child really does not want to listen to a fairy tale. In this case, his refusal should be clearly heard and not insist on his own. Do not forget that at this stage of the novel, which he is tied with a book, the most important thing is the pleasure of the process.
From 0 to 1.5 years
The kid perfectly perceives the rhythmic rhythms anddistinguishes between intonations. For the first readings choose poetry: it will give the first idea of a special artistic language, different from everyday. Since the meaning of the contents of crumbs is not yet available, you can read any poets. When a little girl learns to sit and hold objects in hand, you can give him books - toys - cloth, rubber, cardboard, musical. The main thing is that one character should be depicted on one page, so that the kid can easily identify him, show how the pussy meows, where she has a ponytail, ears and antennae. Flavors, jokes, lullabies help children to build a model of the surrounding world. Also useful are books about everyday events in the life of the baby: how he dines, plays, sleeps.
1,5 to 3 years
The child begins to speak, understands the meaning of manywords and can imagine how "the kettle for the coffee pot is running." It's time to introduce him to the poems of Chukovsky, Marshak, Barto. Early reading is the interaction of the kid not only with his mother, but also with the author of the book and the illustrator. The child tries to "decode" the pictures, so look for books with beautiful pictures and good characters: on their faces the kid will learn to read emotions. "Acid" colors and heroes, drawn in the style of computer graphics - not the most successful choice. The plot should be simple and coherent, with the beginning, middle and end; motives of actions of heroes - are clear. Thanks to this structure of the text, the child learns to build a sequence of events and to catch cause and effect relationships. Give preference to short stories. You can start with the fairy tales with illustrations of Vladimir Suteev ("Three Kittens", "Chicken and the Duckling") and a series of books about Beard Karma Wilson and Jane Chapman. For 3 years, the stories "Kitten named Gav" by Grigory Oster and "The Adventures of the Piglet Peter" by Lyudmila Petrushevskaya are suitable. In parallel, you can read well-known tales. Audiobooks can be included from 2 to 3 years. Their main difference from the usual book is the lack of live communication with my mother.
3 to 5 years
There is a temptation to impose a baby cognitiveencyclopedias and alphabets. But at the preschool age in most children the leading role is played by the right hemisphere, which is responsible for imaginative thinking and emotional development. The left hemisphere, responsible for logical operations and information processing, ripens only to 6 - 7 years. Overloading a child with knowledge can lead to nervous breakdowns. The child learns to hear and perceive the artistic text, to enjoy the music of the verse, to see the image behind the words. Poems and classical children's prose with integral subjects are important here: stories by N. Nosov, A. Raskin, V. Dragunsky, Andersen's tales, etc. Time for gambling poetry (verses - flip-flops): the kid is already able to laugh at the world upside down by the side. To offer them earlier does not make sense: the child will not understand anything and will get confused in strange images. You can read A. Usacheva, J. Morits O. Grigorieva. "Psychotherapeutic" books of contemporary authors about the death, the birth of children, etc., can be read to the kid in the event that this issue is of concern to him and he shows a heightened interest to the topic. Read them for informative purposes or for the sake of diversity is not worth it. It is also necessary to avoid books where familiar subjects are set forth in the style of a textbook, with problems like: "Now count how many kids are left in the house!". Such a pitch violates the integral perception of artistic tact. We advise you to read: