To date, among all diseaseshuman diseases of the musculoskeletal system occupy one of the leading places. Especially this applies to the elderly and children. This group includes many different names of diseases. This includes injuries of the musculoskeletal system, chronic diseases, malnutrition, benign and malignant neoplasms. A special place among them is the so-called Baker's cyst, or the popliteal cyst cyst. Many of them develop in athletes as a result of injuries and falls, others as complications of major diseases. Of great importance is the fact that some diseases of the musculoskeletal system can lead to complications and make the patient disabled. Due to all this, the issue of timely detection, diagnosis and treatment of such a disease is acute. Let us consider in more detail what is the Baker's cyst of the knee joint, the treatment of this disease, its etiology.
Definition and etiology of the disease
Baker's cyst is called benignThe tumor is a neoplasm located in the popliteal fossa. It is dense to the touch, but at the same time soft. The surrounding tissues look healthy in this pathology. Their color is physiological. The Baker's cyst is clearly visible only when the leg is unbent in the knee joint, whereas when bent, it almost disappears. Dimensions of cysts can be very different. The largest amount of cysts can be the cause of chronic edema of the knee. When a cyst occurs, the patient can make many complaints. In most cases, the occurrence of a cyst under the knee is a consequence of the unfavorable course of some other disease, for example, osteoarthritis, joint trauma, cartilage damage, osteoarthritis, degenerative meniscus changes, rheumatoid arthritis, patellofemoral arthrosis, chronic synovitis, cartilage damage. Often, a cyst can appear without a reason. Most often this pathology develops in the elderly and athletes as a result of numerous injuries. But it can affect people of any age. The knee is the bone most often damaged. This area has many ligaments, tendons, which often leads to serious consequences (disability, temporary disability).
The main symptoms of a knee cyst
With the Baker's cyst of the knee jointcomplaints are: the presence of tenderness in this area, swelling in the popliteal fossa, periodically arising blockages of the knee joint, difficulty in movement, feeling of pressure and stiffness in the knee joint. In addition, you can observe formidable complications of the underlying disease, for example, rupture of the knee cyst. Its mechanism is based on the action of high pressure in this region of the knee. If the cyst of the knee joint is large, then it can squeeze the soft tissues, nerves. The most often suffers from the tibial nerve. All this leads to soreness, and sometimes immobilization of the limb. Another complication is the occurrence of thrombosis and thrombophlebitis in the affected knee and the entire limb. In this case, both deep and subcutaneous vessels are affected. All this leads to stagnation of blood, edema, increased pressure. Pain in the leg during normal flow is a non-permanent symptom that often occurs in case of complications, so it does not apply to the main ones. In children, this pathology is rare.
Diagnosis of the knee cyst
How is Baker's cyst diagnosed? Diagnosis includes a mandatory interview with the patient. This takes into account the main complaints of the victim. Of great importance is the collection of an anamnesis of the disease and an anamnesis of life. The presence of injuries, the circumstances of the appearance of ailment, the profession of the injured - all this plays a big role in the final diagnosis. After the survey, it is advisable to conduct an external examination. Particular attention is paid to the mobility of the joint and the presence of swelling. The amplitude of motion of the limb also has a value. The next stage is instrumental and laboratory research. There are several basic methods. The first of these is ultrasound. Equivalent with it is the use of computed tomography. The neoplasm in the popliteal fossa region is determined on the screen. Diaphanoscopy is also recommended. This procedure is based on the use of light to determine the presence of fluid in the cavity of the cyst. Light is passed through the affected area, and the result looks on the screen. Valuable data are provided by magnetic resonance imaging. With its help, you can determine the contours and dimensions of the cyst, identify trauma to the meniscus. And the last method is arthrography (x-ray of the knee), which is important for the exclusion of similar diseases, such as arthritis and dystrophic changes.
Cyst Baker: treatment of the disease
After the finaldiagnosis, it is necessary to treat this disease. To treat a cyst of a joint it is possible both folk remedies, and medicamentally. Most often it is treated conservatively. To do this, injections of hormonal drugs directly into the joint itself, pumping the fluid out of the cavity. From hormonal preparations it is expedient to use hydrocortisone, diprospan. A good effect is given by anti-inflammatory ointments, compresses. Separately, as a therapy, physiotherapy procedures are identified. From folk remedies it is recommended to apply compresses from elderberry and raspberry. To do this, take the leaves of the plants in equal proportions and insist in 100 ml of boiling water about half an hour. After that, the mass of the leaves is removed and applied to the damaged area for about 2 hours. The procedure is repeated until the patient feels better and heals. Cyst therapy also includes the use of a golden mustache. This healing plant (its leaves) must be crushed and filled with two-thirds of a 3-liter jar. It is necessary to fill the jar with water, close and keep at least 20 days in a dark place. At the end of this time, the infusion is filtered. For treatment, both leaves and infusion will work. Leaves are used as compresses, and the liquid is drunk 2 tablespoons several times a day. If conservative and folk methods are ineffective, then you need to see a doctor. If the disease is complicated, surgery may be necessary. It's pretty simple, it takes about half an hour. The patient can only walk for 5 days.
Complicated course of the disease
In most cases, the cyst does not requirespecial therapy, it resolves itself after 2-3 years. If this did not happen, then a complex of medical and rehabilitation measures may be needed. This includes drainage of fluid from the joint, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, wearing a special elastic bandage, aspiration of fluid, drug blockade and, of course, surgical intervention. Based on the foregoing, it can be concluded that the cyst is not a serious, but dangerous, complication-related disease that develops against the background of pre-existing pathology, more often in older people and athletes.