Sooner or later, most people come tothoughts that they want a child. But, to great regret, sometimes the couple can not get pregnant in spite of all the efforts and tricks. As unfavorable statistics say, about 20% of married couples face such a problem as infertility. Alas, the reproductive function of modern people is becoming more imperfect and often fails. And that's why such a concept as artificial insemination no longer surprises anybody. But let's understand this delicate matter in order. Do you know when to talk about infertility? Very often women begin to panic after the second - the third month of unsuccessful attempts. However, doctors say that true infertility is diagnosed only after one year of unsuccessful attempts to become pregnant. And in some cases this period may be even greater.
Indications for IVF
It is very important to see a doctor and find out the reasoninfertility. In most cases, infertility can be successfully treated in less radical ways than IVF. However, in about 30% of all cases of infertility, alternative therapies are ineffective if there are problems such as:
- Problems with fallopian tubes
In the event that the adhesive processes are verystrong, partial or complete obstruction of the fallopian tubes may develop. And in some cases - for example, in cases of ectopic pregnancy - the fallopian tubes may be completely absent. Carry a child from the physiological point of view, a woman may well, but to become pregnant - no.
- Male infertility
The problem can be hidden not only in the femalebody, but also in the male. Doctors quite often diagnose a decrease in the mobility of spermatozoa and a decrease in their number, and sometimes even their complete absence.
- Immunological factor of infertility
And it is in these cases that it is worth remembering such a method as in vitro fertilization. In some cases it is ECO that becomes the only opportunity for the spouses to become parents.
Conditions for ECO
In Vitro Fertilization - the procedure is very serious, so for its implementation, it is necessary to comply with a number of mandatory conditions:
- Consent of spouses
In order for doctors to perform in vitro fertilization, consent of both spouses is necessary.
- Health status
No less important is the general state of healthspouses. At the time of ECO, neither a man nor a woman should have any acute or chronic diseases of the genital tract, as well as general systemic diseases of the body, which are contraindications to IVF.
- Condition of the uterus and ovaries
At the time of IVF, a woman should not havepathological changes in the uterine cavity and neoplasms, albeit benign, in the ovaries. That is why, before IVF, a married couple must undergo an extensive examination without fail. Do not ignore this need at all, because otherwise the chances of a successful pregnancy are several times lower, but the risk of developing all sorts of complications, on the contrary, is increasing. A woman's examination, as a rule, includes:
- Oral consultation and follow-up examination of a gynecologist.
- Consultation of an endocrinologist.
- Consultation with a therapist and, if necessary,
- Ultrasound examination of internal organs, including pelvic organs.
- Colposcopy - examination of the cervix.
- A number of tests: cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis A and B, herpes, gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia. In addition, a bacteriological study of the mucus of the cervical canal, a swab from the vagina.
- Hormonal examination.
But the medical examination must be carried out not only by the woman, but also by the man. For him, the survey is as follows:
- Consultation and a full examination of the andrologist.
- Ultrasound examination of internal organs.
- Hormonal examination.
- Analyzes for infectious diseases, including for sexually transmitted diseases.
- Extended spermogram.
- Bacteriological and biochemical study of sperm.
As a rule, such a survey takes not too little time, so do not postpone it for later, start to pass it on time.
What is IVF?
So, what is in vitro fertilization? In the people this procedure is called artificial insemination. As you can guess from the name, the fertilization of the egg occurs outside the mother's body. And only after a few days the fertilized egg is transferred to the uterine cavity. But let's consider the procedure for IVF in more detail. After all, whatever method of artificial insemination you choose, the algorithm of actions will be the same in all cases.
- Stimulation of ovulation
As a rule, during the menstrual cycleonly one egg ripens. And to conduct a successful IVF, one is not enough. Therefore, in order to mature a few eggs, on the third day of the cycle, a woman begins to take a special hormonal drug that stimulates this very maturation. The very process of maturation of the egg is carefully controlled by ultrasound investigation - its dimensions are tracked. In addition, the level of progesterone, estrogen, luteinizing hormone is constantly kept under control. Controls the condition of mucus secreted by the cervical channel. As rules, in order for the ovum to reach the required size, it takes about 10 days. And only after that a woman receives a hormone called chorionic gonadotropin. It is necessary for the final maturation of eggs.
- Egg extraction
So, the eggs matured - they need to beimmediately remove from the body of a woman. This is done as follows - a special needle for punctures is attached to the ultrasound sensor, this entire structure is carefully inserted into the woman's vagina. The puncture needle pierces follicles of the largest size, from which the mature eggs are extracted. Very many women planning to resort to IVF help fear possible pain. In fact, during this procedure, a woman is under slight anesthesia. This anesthesia acts on the nervous system only superficially and does not bring any harm to the health of the woman.
- Getting Sperm
What is needed for the fertilization of the egg? Of course, viable sperm. They can be obtained as ejaculate, and directly from the epididymis or the testis itself, if the sperm ejaculate is too small. And spermatozoa can be used both immediately after receiving, and after a very long time. For this, the spermatozoa are frozen in a special way. And after defrosting, the ability of sperm to fertilize is preserved - they can fertilize an egg even after ten years.
- Selection of biological material
In order for in vitro fertilizationwas successful, only fully mature ovules and viable spermatozoa are needed - they are selected under a microscope. It is quite interesting to test the spermatozoa - they are placed in a liquid medium. The most viable spermatozoa instantly "float", and the inactive and weak remain in place.
- Fertilization of the egg
In order for insemination to take place, it is necessaryconnect the egg and sperm. As a rule, this happens in a test tube. This is as follows - the eggs in special cups with nutrient medium are preliminarily placed in the incubator for 5 to 6 hours. After this, pre-prepared spermatozoa are placed in the cup, which must fertilize the egg. According to the technology, about 100,000 spermatozoa are needed per egg. They literally cling to the egg and begin to produce a special enzyme that helps penetrate the sperm inside. Of course, all without exception spermatozoa, but this is obtained only from one. Once it penetrates into the egg, access to the rest is closed. And so, as soon as the spermatozoon and the ovum have united, the ECO has happened. However, fertilization is only a third part of success. The cells immediately begin to divide - after about 72 hours the embryo reaches the required size, and therefore, it must be transferred to the organism of the future mother. Transfer of embryos. For the transfer of embryos into the uterine cavity a special catheter is used. The procedure is completely painless, so a woman should not be afraid of her. As a rule, in order to increase the chances of a successful outcome of IVF, doctors place several embryos in the uterine cavity at once. After the transfer of embryos, women are prescribed special medications that contribute to the preservation of pregnancy and the proper development of the embryo. About 14 days after the transfer of the fetal egg to the uterus, the level of the hormone of the chorionic gonadotropin is monitored in the blood, corrective therapy is prescribed if necessary. And after three weeks the fetal egg can be examined during the ultrasound.
Other facts about IVF
So, you got a general idea of what artificial insemination is. But you need to remember some other facts concerning IVF.
- Preservation of embryos
In the event that, after transfer to the uterus cavityleft a number of embryos, freezing methods available to modern medicine, allow you to save them as long as necessary for parents. At first glance it may seem that this procedure is superfluous, but it is not so. Alas, not every pregnancy after IVF is obtained from the first time. And here, if you need a second IVF, thanks to frozen embryos, a woman will not have to undergo repeated hormone therapy and puncture of the ovaries.
- Effectiveness of IVF
As a rule, one of the first questions thatthe future parents ask the doctor - this is the question of what the probability of pregnancy as a result of IVF. Typically, very much depends on the individual characteristics of the woman's body - an average of 20-40%. At first glance, these figures may seem very low. But do not forget that pregnancy, which has occurred as a result of artificial insemination, has a number of its features. For example, very often problems with the hormonal background do not allow the woman's body to bear the child on her own. Of course, doctors in all cases prescribe a special hormone therapy for the woman, aimed at maintaining pregnancy. However, the increased risk of spontaneous abortion still remains.
- Multiple pregnancy
Do not forget that afterartificial insemination is often more frequent cases of multiple pregnancies. This happens if all embryos placed in the uterus get accustomed. Of course, the joy of the appearance of two or even three kids will be huge. However, any multiple pregnancy is always accompanied by an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and / or premature birth. Therefore, a pregnant woman should take special care and attention to their health. First, visit a gynecologist on time and strictly follow all his instructions and recommendations. Secondly, be prepared for the fact that there may be a need for hospitalization - in no case do not abandon it. Of course, IVF does not give a 100% guarantee for the birth of a healthy child. But the probability that you will become happy parents, increases at times. Therefore, in any case, do not miss your chance to hear the long-awaited words "Mom" and "Dad"! We advise you to read: