With the onset of cold weather, there are more casesdiseases of acute respiratory viral infection, or cold. According to statistics, it gets sick more than a million people every year. The most vulnerable to infection are children of preschool and school age. Women aged 20 to 30 are more likely than men to get sick. Very many people consider colds to be a minor disease, carry it on their feet or do not cure. However, this is a big mistake: it can lead to serious complications (pneumonia, otitis, bronchitis, etc.), and in general it gives a lot of discomfort to the patient. Therefore, it is best not to suffer a cold on your feet, but to provide yourself with a bed rest for a few days. And, of course, you need to know how to defeat this ailment. Then the disease will pass quickly and without complications.
Causes, symptoms and consequences of colds
It is very important to know from where you can come fromdanger of infection, because the easiest way to prevent infection and not get sick at all. Why then do so many people still can not be saved and become ill? Many of them, most likely, either do not know, or do not give due importance to sources of infection. Let us consider where the disease can come from.
- Direct contact with a sick person
The infection of acute respiratory infections is transmitted by airborneway, that is, you can get infected with a kiss, when talking at close range, if the patient sneezes at you or if you use his personal things. Therefore, it is best to restrict communication with a person until he recovers. Similarly, if you are infected, treat your health with respect and do not expose people to infection.
- Indirect contact with a sick person
The human body is so susceptible to the virus,that it is possible to catch, just by grasping the pen in a public place, for which the patient was holding to you. Therefore, it is necessary to protect yourself as much as possible from contact with the sick person, and also carefully wash your hands from the street. It would seem that the rules familiar to everyone from childhood, but in fact are effective prevention of infection. The main syndrome that accompanies the common cold is intoxication. In case of a common cold, which is not complicated by the consequences, a moderate intoxication is observed: upper respiratory tract infection. In this case, the symptomatology depends on the type of the pathogen of the virus: rhinovirus infection of the person affects rhinitis, with adenovirus - rhinopharyngitis, keratitis or conjunctivitis, with parainfluenza affects the larynx, with influenza observed tracheitis, with respiratory syncytial infection - bronchitis. In addition, there is a headache, lacrimation, the temperature can rise, general weakness, weakness, lethargy develop. In any case, even if you have a common cold, you should start treatment, because the cold can very quickly from a simple form to flow into a complicated one, which will be cured much more difficultly, and the process of recovery will take a long time. The cold is treated only with anti-cold medications. Since ARVI is manifested by several symptoms, doctors prescribe several drugs that are designed to eliminate the causes of each symptom separately. Thus, drugs used for colds can be divided into several groups:
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
- Combined anti-inflammatory drugs against colds;
- drugs that are used against cough;
- drugs that are used against the common cold;
- means to improve immunity.
Next, we consider each type of drugpreparation in more details. However, teach that self-medication is still better not to deal with: you simply can get lost in the abundance of the funds that modern pharmaceuticals offer, and choose a medication that is not entirely suitable to you, which in the end may not give the desired result.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs against colds
One of the leaders among drugs againstcolds, which have already become classics, is salicylic acid and its derivatives. However, do not rush to use, for example, all known acetylsalicylic acid, because in some cases, salicylic acid preparations can cause complications. In addition, in some cases this remedy can cause an allergic reaction. Another classic anti-inflammatory drug, which is widely used in the treatment of colds in patients of different ages, is paracetamol. They are considered quite safe and harmless, so they can be safely applied not only to adults, but also to children. Paracetamol well reduces temperature, has analgesic effect. However, compared with salicylic acid, it has less pronounced anti-inflammatory properties. Nonsteroid drugs are contained in combined cold remedies, which will be discussed below.
Combined anti-inflammatory drugs against colds
Combined drugs are verygreat success, as they include not only directly non-steroid drugs, but also other substances that increase the effectiveness of treatment. So, the composition of combined anti-inflammatory drugs includes paracetamol and ascorbic acid (vitamin C). It increases the resistance of the body, does not allow the release of histamine from tissues and stimulates the formation of interferon and antibodies. In addition, with a cold, there is an increased need for the body in vitamin C. This need remains for 3 weeks after recovery. But the amount of vitamin C that is contained in the combined preparations is not enough to cover the daily requirement of the organism in it, therefore it is recommended to take supplemental vitamin C. Combined preparations often include vasoconstrictive and antihistamines. So, the widespread vasoconstrictor component, which is often included in the combined preparations, is caffeine. In addition, it enhances the effect of paracetamol and stimulates the body. Antihistamines help reduce edema of the nasal mucosa, facilitate breathing and reduce lacrimation. Histamine is the main mediator of inflammation, it causes the expansion of capillaries, resulting in such symptoms as runny nose, coughing, sneezing, nasal congestion and lacrimation. Therefore, for colds, preparations of phenyramine maleate, chlorpheniramine maleate and the like are indicated. They help to relieve unpleasant symptoms. Excellent blood vessels and reduce swelling of the mucosa and adrenomimetics (for example, pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine). The amisone deserves special attention. It is a drug from the group of nonsteroidal, which has a pronounced antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic properties.
Means against cold
The most severe cold symptom for many peopleis a common cold. And indeed, it is because of it that tears flow, the nose is stuffy, there is a feeling of inflamed and overdried mucous and a state of general frustration. If the cold does not heal, it can go into more severe forms (sinusitis), which are much more dangerous for health and much more difficult to treat. Therefore, it is better to pay attention to the common cold as soon as it has begun. In general, doctors prescribe anti-rhinitis drugs from the group of stimulants of alpha-adrenergic receptors. These include, for example, tetrisolin, naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline, etc. These drugs have a positive effect on the nasal mucosa: reduce swelling and flushing, the amount of discharge from the nose, which makes the patient easier to breathe, and the general condition improves. To treat the common cold often used and essential oils (in pure form or mixture). A good effect allows you to achieve essential oils of mint, eucalyptus, thyme, cedar, etc. They are used in the form of drops, cream, ointment or inhalation, depending on the patient's preferences.
Preparations against cough
Often with a cold a patient is coughing. In this case, expectorants are used, which change the property of sputum and facilitate its departure. They are distinguished by the mechanism of action on the body. Preparations of reflex action contribute to the liquefaction of sputum and its easier expectoration. Use these drugs every 2 hours, because, on the one hand, their effect is short, and on the other - a large dose of the drug can cause vomiting. Therefore, prescribe small doses of medication with frequent medications. Such preparations include the root of the althaea, the root of licorice, the decoction of the root of elecampane, the infusion of plantain leaves, etc. Drugs of resorptive action are widely used. They also contribute to the dilution of sputum and facilitate its rejection. The preparations of this group include tincture of eucalyptus, eucalyptus oil, thyme, anise, etc. Mucolytic drugs contribute to liquefaction and easy coughing up of phlegm. This group includes ribonuclease, chymotrypsin. These drugs can cause allergies and bleeding, so use them with caution. Amino acids with SH group also showed effectiveness in fighting cough. But they have a serious side effect: with bronchial asthma, they can cause bronchospasm, so before inhalation it is necessary to use bronchodilators. Mukoregulyatory - a mucolytic drugs of a new generation. They are effective and well tolerated, although rare side effects are not excluded: skin rash, dysfunction of the digestive system. Remedies for mucosal secretions make sputum less viscous and thus facilitate its coughing. These funds include alkaline minerals, sodium chloride 2% for inhalation or sodium bicarbonate 0.5-2% for inhalations.
Preparations for boosting the immune system
It is very important to help the immune system cope withvirus, because it is due to immunity that we do not get sick during epidemics and because of it we are cured if our immune system still does not cope with the attack of a viral infection. Various drugs are used as immunostimulants. Excellent means of plant origin. They activate the natural protective functions of the body, which is just as necessary in the fight against catarrhal diseases. The leader among all natural immunomodulators is echinacea purpurea. In addition, it has antibacterial, antimycotic and antiviral properties. Produced in the form of tablets and alcohol tincture.