Anthurium is a plant from the family of arid(Aronian), which belongs to one of the numerous genera, numbering about nine hundred species. In Latin, the name of the plant means "tail"; perhaps, that is why anthurium is also called a "flower-flamingo". The homeland of the anthurium is the tropics and subtropics of America, the north of Mexico, Paraguay and Argentina. The predominant majority of species are erect grasses growing in tropical forests. In the process of evolution, these plants turned into creeping plants - epiphytes and lianas with air roots. Today, the anthurium is grown at home, and they are popular because of their bedspreads, which resemble a large petal shaped closely adjacent to the inflorescence. In turn, the inflorescence forms cobs in the form of thick tails. At the moment, decorative species of anthurium are known, mainly these are the beautifully flowering subspecies, which have now become commercialized. In modern culture, an anthurium is used as a garden or cut, as well as an indoor plant. However, anthurium, like any plant, has some peculiarities and problems in the care, about which today we will talk.
Rules of competent care for anthurium
The first thing to be said about when discussing the rulescare for the anthurium, is that the plant is poisonous. Therefore, it is very important to be careful when working with a flower. Get special gloves that, during the care process, will protect your hands from the poisonous juice of the plant. Do so that young children or animals can not reach the pot with the flower. The main problem in the growth of anthurium is leaf disease. As a rule, black spots appear on the leaves, they are dried and twisted. All this is due to improper care or due to pest effects. To prevent this, first of all it is necessary to provide the plant with an optimal temperature regime. In this case, it's sixteen or eighteen degrees in the winter. In the spring-summer period, the temperature in the room can be from twenty to twenty-five degrees. The plant should not suffer from drafts and wind, it needs to grow in conditions reminiscent of the warm climate of his homeland, throughout the year. If you want an anthurium to bloom earlier than usual, then gradually increase the temperature to twenty-three to twenty-five degrees. It is best to do this in January. Anthuriums like good diffuse light, remarkably tolerate shading. Remember that the shading from the direct rays is mandatory, otherwise the leaves will start to appear dark spots or they will dry up completely. It is best to place pots with a plant on the windows from the east or north-west sides. Humidity should be increased, in particular, in the autumn and spring, when the growth of the anturium occurs most actively. At the same time, you need to provide the plant with copious watering. Do not forget to spray the flower using water at room temperature. This procedure should be repeated twice a day. But do not allow water to stagnate in the soil! The mistake of many florists in the process of watering a plant is its overmoistening, which provokes rotting of the root system. To prevent rotting, be sure to fill the pot with a drainage layer that will monitor the level of liquid in the tank. Anthurium is better to grow in a pot that is not too deep, but rather wide - the plant has a superficial root system. Due to air roots Anthurium gets the necessary moisture from the air, therefore it will not be superfluous to wrap the roots with special moss-sphagnum, periodically spraying it. Incorrect watering provokes many problems: dry leaves appear, brown and yellow spots on them, the root system rot. Between the watering of the anthurium, the top layer should dry a little. However, do not let the earth coma dry out. If you are trying to make the plant abundantly bloom, then in winter and in autumn, reduce the watering a little. Use soft, preferably rainwater. If you are using tap water, then it needs to be softened, since it contains a lot of lime. Anthuriums prefer rather high humidity, from 85 to 95%. Virtually all plants of this genus suffer from excessively dry air in the room, especially for species with brightly colored, thin leaves (majestic or crystal anthurium). To maintain the necessary humidity in the apartment, put a pot of plant on a pallet filled with moist gravel. Instead of gravel, you can use expanded clay. Also pots can be placed in sphagnum moss, which must also be moist. Not bad, if you make an anthurium room greenhouse. Dust from the leaves is best washed off with a soft sponge soaked in warm water. In summer, you need to regularly spray the leaves with warm water, but in the flowering process you need to be with this neat. Spraying anthurium, make sure that the water drops do not fall on the flowers, because because of this, they form brown spots. Thus, the ornamentality of the plant is lost. It is important to know about proper feeding. Fertilize anthurium in spring and summer, once every three weeks. Anthuriums are very sensitive to too much lime, and to excess minerals. Fertilizers should be diluted. In the form of complex fertilizer, it is recommended to use azofosca in a ratio of 1 g / l, adding potassium humate (300 mg / l). The most effective foliar dressing affects the leaves. Very good effect is also provided by organic fertilizers, however they are not always available. They need to be applied directly to the surface of the substrate. For example, it can be leaf humus in the form of mulch or cow or horse manure (half-baked). Once a month anthurium should be watered using chicken manure or mullein infusion. To grow an anthurium was successful, you need to find the right soil. When growing a plant in a pot, use substrates of a fairly loose, coarse-fiber structure. It is very important that the substrate is breathable and has a neutral PH, from 5.0 to 6.0. In the substrate, there should be large particles that will keep the plant well and at the same time retain moisture and all nutrients. Substrate should not quickly cake up and decompose. Seals should not appear here either. At the bottom of the pot, place a drainage layer consisting of one layer of sand and cuttings. You can also make a substrate of chopped moss (two parts), peat (two parts) and turf (one part) or hardwood and peat, adding a little bark of coniferous trees. Because of a poor-quality substrate, flowers and leaves can suffer: yellow spots appear on them, they twist and lose shape.
Difficulties in the cultivation of anthurium
Anthurium is not the most demanding plant. It is not subject to strong pests. In an industrial crop, such plants are often attacked by a scabbard and a heifer, as well as aphids and mites. Especially dangerous for anthurium are the scutes, the reproduction of which occurs quite quickly, and in order to destroy them, a lot of serious effort is required. Anthurium is affected by root, as well as stem, destructive rot, which provoke an overmoistened substrate and too low temperatures. Anthracnose is another disease of the plant. What is it manifested in? On the leaves appear dark spots, they dry out from the edges. In case of a strong defeat, the anthurium is completely depleted and dies. Combating anthracnose is a serious process that requires perseverance and time. You need to start treatment as soon as you notice the first signs, which were mentioned above. Treat the plant with fungicides. Experts recommend using systemic fungicide varieties. Problems with plant growth and leaf darkening can be associated with excess calcium salts in the soil layer. Drafts, too dry air, lack of lighting or its overabundance can also affect the appearance of the flower. If the tips of the leaves are dry, then, most likely, the plant received a sunburn - it is enough just to pritenit it. If the leaves have darkened or dried in the winter, then it's all about lack of lighting. If you notice black dots on the leaves, you should raise the temperature, as the plant is clearly frozen. Anthuriums love warmth. Problems with the leaves can arise and because of illiterate feeding. The way out is to normalize top dressing with fertilizers. If the spots are small and visible on the lumen, it is most likely that the plant is affected by a spider mite. In addition to mites, anthurium often suffers from scabies, aphids, mealybugs, and suffers from septoriosis. The shield can be identified by sticky excretions on the leaves. Once you understand that the plant is sick, treat it with soapy water. If the infection is severe, then use Carbophos for treatment. Shriveled leaves and yellow spots on them speak of the defeat of aphids. Here for processing you need to use Actellik or tobacco infusion. But the mealybug can be found on the plant and with the naked eye - its clusters are fairly well traced in the aerial parts of the anthurium. To get rid of such a pest is better than Carbophos. If on the plant there is an abundant spot of foliage, then this is septoriosis. It is necessary to remove all affected foliage and treat anthurium with an ordinary solution of copper sulfate. Anthurium - a plant is not one of the most fastidious, therefore to provide him with the due care and care will not be difficult even to inexperienced growers. Observe the necessary temperature regime, ensure the correct lighting and humidity, and then the anthurium will please you with its bright appearance.