Anthurium belongs to the plants of the familyAronian, or, in other words, aroid. Perhaps, this is the most numerous family of this family, because some species of anthuriums today number nine hundred different subspecies. They differ in the form of flowers and their coloring, the leaves of each species also have their own particular shape and color. If you translate from Latin the name of the genus, anthurium means "tail" or "flower". Sometimes a plant is called a flamingo flower. Anthurium has a rather dense glossy veil of leathery texture. Flowers, as a rule, have the form of heart, and their color varies from a gentle pink up to a saturated red. When you first look at the flowers of anthurium, you might think that they are made of plastic - this feature distinguishes it from other plants. The Anthurium itself comes from the Central and South American subtropics. Many plant species are terrestrial upright grasses, and those that inhabit the tropics have evolved over time into creeping plants - peculiar lianas with air roots and so-called epiphytes. Decorative-leaved aroids are known and popular today. As a rule, these are their beautifully blooming species, which received mainly commercial distribution. Every day more and more different forms and varieties of anthurium, obtained from plant hybrids, are cultivated. Anthurium is used as a house and garden plant, and also as a plant intended for cutting. Let's look at how to properly care for such a flower, and understand why sometimes anthuriums dry and how to deal with this.
Common problems in the cultivation of anthurium
The first, and, perhaps, the main difficulty in the processgrowing an anthurium is a problem with leaves and flowers. Very often they dry and curl. The reasons for this may be mass. First of all, it's dryness of the air, and also a draft. This is the first, because of what leaves, roots and flowers can suffer. You can also notice that the leaves start to turn yellow in the summer. Why is this happening? So the sunburn shows itself. This can be avoided by attaching the plant, protecting it from the constant exposure to direct sunlight. If the foliage turns yellow in winter, then, on the contrary, it is a sign of lack of lighting. In this case, it is enough just to place the pot with the plant a little closer to the light. Often on the leaves of the flower appear dark color points, usually black. This can contribute to too low a temperature. It is very important in the process of growing an anthurium to provide him with a maximum of heat, but within acceptable limits. If you observe large patches of yellow, this indicates problems with fertilizing the plant. Fertilize the anthurium with special means - top dressing should be balanced. Sometimes the anthurium leaves turn black. This is the first signal about an overabundance of calcium salts in the soil mass. Again, this can occur because of improper fertilizing the flower. Your task is to prepare the plant suitable soil, a quality substrate, which will prevent this problem. If the leaves of the anthurium slow their growth and begin to dry out, the problem may lurk in the root system. The first thing to do is to wash off the old soil layer with warm water and examine the roots. Remove all rotten roots, then dry them for some time (enough hours). Now you can transplant the plant. Take a new pot and loosen the pre-soil. After all the work done by you, the plant will come to life. And already when the leaves begin to grow actively, new flowers will appear. If you want to stimulate the growth and flowering of the anthurium, then use special preparations, for example, Ovary and Bud. You can buy them at any specialized store. The most destructive diseases for anthurium are rot. They can be either stem or root. The reason for its appearance is, as a rule, waterlogging of the substrate and sudden temperature jumps. Also, rot can provoke anthracnose, when the leaf blades gradually dry out from the edges, and if the lesion is strong, they completely die off. It is important to treat the anturium with a fungicide, as soon as you notice that the rot has affected the plant.
Features of care for anthurium
Initially, it is important to know that an anturium does not tolerateexposure to direct sunlight. For this plant, the optimal temperature in the summer will be 20-23 degrees. In winter, the temperature should not be below 18 degrees. Anthurium needs high humidity. Please note that in the spring-summer period the anthurium should be watered abundantly, while ensuring high humidity. Do not forget to spray the leaves of the plant twice a day using water at room temperature.
- Watering and moisturizing
Do not stagnate water in any way, otherwisethe plant can die. As such, waterlogging promotes decay of roots, so add a drainage layer to the pot with an anthurium. You do not need to pick up a pot too deep, but it should be wide. Anthurium is a plant with a superficial root system. Due to air roots Anthurium can replenish moisture reserves directly from the air. That's why you need to wrap its roots with a special moss-sphagnum, which must be periodically sprayed.
- Temperature conditions
Earlier it was said that to contain an anturiumyou need a fairly warm room with an average temperature of 18-20 degrees. At the same time, isolate the plant from the heating system as much as possible. Remember that the permissible minimum value in winter should not fall below 15 degrees. Otherwise, the leaves of the plant will curl and dry.
- Lighting for anthurium
In general, the anthurium is quite fastadapts to the conditions of the room. The only thing that needs to be mentioned is the need of the plant for an abundance of light. If this need is met, the flowers of the anthurium will become even brighter and more saturated. However, direct rays should be avoided.
- Anthurium fertilizer
It can not be said that the Anthurium is very demandingfeeding and constantly needs additional nutrients. It is important only to periodically fertilize the plant in the period from March to August. Top dressing should be done about once every two weeks. This plant is sensitive to mineral salts, in particular, to their overabundance. Do not forget to dilute the fertilizer before you feed the plant. For example, as a complex nutrient, you can use azofosca. Its concentration should be about 1 g per liter. Do not forget to add here humate, about 300 mg per liter. However, the most effective are the foliar mineral weekly weekly fertilizing, in which the anthurium leaves are especially needed. No less effective and organic top dressing, but it is not always available. It must be applied directly to the surface of the substrate itself, for example, leaf humus or manure in the form of mulch. In addition, once a month, water the plant with infusion based on chicken manure - this will prevent rotting of leaves and flowers.
- Correct humidity
As for any plant, for an anthurium it is veryit is important that the necessary humidity is maintained. Anthurium needs very moist air. To this end, again, you need to constantly spray the plant. For an anthurium the optimum humidity is 90%. Try to provide such conditions for the plant. You can put an anturium on a pallet, on which gravel or expanded clay is laid, and pour water into this tray. This will help maintain the correct humidity for the plant.
- Transplant and Reproduction
Anthuriums, as a rule, are transplanted into a substrate,It is designed for bromeliads and orchids. It is a mixture consisting of one part of coniferous, leafy and peat land, with the addition of 0.5 part of ordinary sand. It is better to use flat, rather wide pots. Drainage should be good. It will not be superfluous to add a little bit of charcoal to the soil, but after the transplantation, the plant should be sprayed even more often and gently watered. During this period anthurium is particularly sensitive to lack of moisture. As for reproduction, the anthurium is propagated by cuttings. The apical long-stem cuttings with aerial roots are used. Anthuriums with short stalks are propagated at the expense of seeds and division. It is important to take into account all the features of the flower.
- The soil layer
To grow a plant in a pot, you needuse rather loose soil with coarse fibers. Air-tight substrates with a pH of 5 to 6 are well suited. Substrates with large particles must be present in the substrate. Its goal - a dense retention of the plant and the preservation of all minerals, substances and, of course, moisture. The substrate must dry easily. It is important that it does not decompose and does not cake. But on the bottom of the pot itself is better to put drainage on the basis of cuttings and sand. And do not forget the main thing. Anturium, despite all its beauty, the plant is poisonous. In particular, its young leaves are poisonous. Therefore, in working with him you need to exercise maximum accuracy. Make sure that the plant is not available for small children and animals.
Pests of anthurium
Of course, the diseases that suffer from flowers,The roots and leaves of the plant are often caused by pests. Despite the fact that the anthuriums do not get sick very often, and in general are weakly affected by various pests, it is important to know how to deal with them in case they still damaged the plant. Most often, the anthurium is exposed to shards and aphids, as well as mealybugs. The shield leaves after itself leaves on a plant of a plaque of brown color, as a rule, on stalks. May also suffer the leaves, which become sticky and gradually lose their rich coloration. If the infection is severe, the leaves dry and fall off. It's quite easy to fight with a shield. Using a simple sponge soaked in soapy water, wipe the plant leaves. Do not be superfluous and spraying with a solution of the actinic (15%). Observe the proportion of 1 ml per 1 liter of water. Aphids are known as the most frequent pest of plants. In the anthurium, it damages the top of the shoots, as well as the bottom of the leaves, flowers and buds. How to determine if a plant is infected? Infection is manifested in discoloration of leaves and their sudden twisting. After that, the leaves turn yellow and fall off quickly. In addition, on the secretions of aphids, a black fungus is formed. It is possible to fight aphids due to spraying with inta-vir and decis, and also by an actinic. Powdery mullet, as a rule, affects shoots, flowers and leaves. For example, the leaves are stained, after which the foliage dries and falls. As a result, an anthurium may die. The flowers become dull and weak. It is possible to fight the worm-weed by wiping the surface of the plant with a soapy sponge and washing it under a warm shower. If the lesion is very strong, spray anthurium with a solution of actinic or carbophos. Please note that some folk remedies are also suitable for combating the pests listed above. For example, onion infusions and tobacco solution. It will also be helped by a mixture on the basis of grated soap with the addition of garlic and water in such proportions: five large spoons of garlic and soap per glass of water. Here, perhaps, and all that you need to know about the proper care of an anturium. These rules are easy to follow, and the plant is not very demanding and fastidious. After spending a bit of your time and taking care of the anthurium, you can grow an exotic, bright plant, impressive with its beauty.