Allergy hives can be called almostthe most common: according to doctors, every second person at least once in his life came across it. Especially often urticaria occurs in children, but adults from her are also not insured. The name given this type of allergy was not accidental - skin rashes are very similar in appearance to burns from the nettle. In order that the disease does not catch you or your loved ones unawares, you must have at least a minimum of information. Of course, you need to see a doctor anyway, but there is not always an opportunity to do it immediately. So, you need to know what to do in this situation.
Causes of allergy development
The very first thing to do whenthe appearance of urticaria - to understand what was the reason for the allergic reaction. If you do not eliminate the body's contact with the allergen, trying to get rid of allergies will also be useless, like fighting with windmills. Of course, in some cases, the exact cause can only be diagnosed by an allergist, but most often you can assume the cause yourself.
Food provokes allergichives in about half of all cases. In principle, an allergy can provoke absolutely any food product, but most often it is a fish of fatty varieties, sweets, honey, nuts, citrus fruits, artificial preservatives and colorants. Therefore, when faced with an allergy, carefully analyze the menu for the last 24 hours.
- Pharmacological preparations
Allergic reactions due to admissionmedicines, account for up to 30 percent of all cases. Most often, allergies cause antibacterial drugs, vitamin-mineral complexes and, incidentally, birth control pills. If you suspect that the medications caused the allergy, immediately stop taking them and tell your doctor.
- Pollen of plants
Allergies can cause pollen from almost anyone.plants. However, most often the allergy in such cases makes itself felt a little differently - a runny nose, watery eyes and itching, coughing and shortness of breath. However, the possibility of allergic urticaria can not be ruled out - organisms in all people are different. It is possible that your decided to react to an allergen in this way - skin rashes.
- Wool and saliva of animals
Doctors-allergists are very often diagnosed withpeople are allergic to saliva and / or animal hair - cats, dogs, guinea pigs, hamsters. And there may be an allergy to any animal, and to any one. In some people, such an allergy may manifest as a cough, runny nose and other symptoms, and someone - skin rashes.
- Physical impact
But the physical effect on the skin is very rarefalls under suspicion. That, however, and it is not surprising - well, someone will come to mind to blame for the development of urticaria sun or frost? In fact, an allergic reaction to the sun's rays - like, however, to high temperatures and frost - a phenomenon that occurs very, very often. And there is such an allergy can at any time, even if before anything like this was not.
- Cosmetics and household chemicals
It would seem that for modern housewives in our timepractically a paradise - there is no such thing as household chemicals that make life easier. Here you and washing powders, and means for washing dishes, glasses, floors - and all you will not list. But very often contact with this miracle of the chemical industry leads to the development of a very strong allergic urticaria. And all of the above is true for not only household chemicals, but also cosmetic products. Gel for washing, a cream, a deodorant - yes whether it is not enough cosmetics in a female handbag? And almost any of these drugs can provoke an allergy.
Symptoms of urticaria
Rash, characteristic of urticaria allergy, veryit is specific - if you see it at least once, you will never go wrong. But for those who have not yet had the chance to see the rash of urticaria, we will tell about the clinical picture of the course of this allergic reaction. The rash with the development of urticaria quite strongly rises above the surface of the skin - by 3-5 millimeters. The rash itself has the appearance of clearly defined blisters, exactly the same as from contact with the nettle. These blisters can have a very different shade - from pale pink to bright red. For this rash, the following characteristic is characteristic: if you press on the blister, it will acquire a normal skin color and disappear. But it's worth letting go, as soon as it appears again. The size of the blisters can also be very different - from a couple of millimeters to several centimeters, and the amount of the rashes themselves can vary from single to multiple, covering almost the entire surface of the skin of the body. As a rule, if there are a lot of rashes, they merge into huge spots, diameters up to several tens of centimeters. Probably, it will be superfluous to say that rashes with urticaria are unbearably itch. Depending on the time during which rashes remain, doctors distinguish two forms of the course of the disease:
- Acute form of urticaria
With this form of the disease, symptoms developvery, very quickly - within one hour after contact with the allergen. As a rule, there are a lot of blisters, they are large and very itchy. Disappear symptoms also quickly - a maximum of one day after the removal of the allergen.
- Chronic form of urticaria
If you are "lucky" to run intochronic allergy with urticaria, the picture of the course of the disease will be somewhat different. First, the disease develops gradually - every day you will discover all the new rashes, and the old ones will disappear. Although, of course, rashes in chronic form is much less than in acute form. Such chronic urticaria can last very long - several weeks and even months. Most often, such an allergic dermatitis affects middle-aged women.
Very often physicians have to differentiateallergic urticaria from pseudoallergic. In the second case, the development of skin rashes occurs not because of the effects of allergens, but because of the presence of certain diseases. Such diseases include:
- The presence of parasites in the body.
- Hepatitis A and B.
- Tuberculosis and septicemia.
- The presence of tumors in the body - both benign and malignant.
- Problems with the endocrine system.
- Lupus Erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis.
Externally, this pseudoallergic urticariaalmost nothing is true. True, blisters are slightly smaller, and they are localized almost always on the back and abdomen, while with allergic urticaria affects the entire body without exception. However, it is of course only possible for the doctor to recognize the type of hives.
Diagnosis of allergic urticaria
In the diagnosis of urticaria there is nothing complicated andAny student of a medical university will be able to distinguish it from any other skin rash. However, this is by far not the most important task - it is much more important to find out why this allergic reaction manifested itself. After all, without knowing the reason, it is difficult to limit contact with the allergen, and hence, the recurrence of the attack of urticaria.
- Location of rashes
First of all, the doctor will pay attention to wherethere are rashes of urticaria - if on the open areas of the body, you can suspect a cold allergy, or an allergy to the sun's rays. Of course, this takes into account an anamnesis - if you have not been on the street for several days, it is unlikely that you can sin on the weather, whatever it is.
- Talk with the patient
By the way, the collection of anamnesis is very important -the allergist doctor should very carefully ask the patient or his parents if the allergic urticaria has developed in the child. Perhaps, recently a person ate something unusual, some product that is not in his daily diet? And maybe changed the washing powder? Or bought a new hand cream? It is very important to remember all the nuances - there are no trifles and can not be, so tell the doctor even that in your opinion no attention is needed. Very often, such a conversation allows you to quickly identify the source of ills - an allergen that provoked an allergic urticaria.
- Allergic tests
In the event that the conversation with the patient waswithout result, the doctor, most likely, will make a decision on the need for carrying out allergic tests. It can be a blood test that detects allergens, or skin tests - depends on the specific cases. Skin tests are done as follows: using a special needle on the surface of the skin, the doctor makes scratches. Then they are applied physiological saline, which contains various allergens. After about 20 minutes the doctor will evaluate the results - if the skin around the scratch is red and / or swollen, a person is allergic to the substance dissolved in this liquid. Unfortunately, there are often cases when the true cause of the allergic reaction is not established. If a person suffers from chronic urticaria, the diagnosis should be more extensive. Firstly, it is necessary to pass a general analysis of urine and blood, liver tests, tests to verify the absence of parasites, eliminate dysbacteriosis, conduct ultrasound examination of internal organs, radiological examination of the lungs and a number of other studies. Such a detailed examination is necessary in order to identify a disease that provokes the development of hives.
Treatment of allergic urticaria
Ignore allergic urticariaIn any case - treatment should be started immediately after the appearance of the first symptoms of the disease. Above we have already said that it is not so difficult to get rid of a true allergic urticaria in an acute form if you know what to do.
- Elimination of contact with an allergen
The first and most important condition for the treatment of urticariaElimination of the allergen. Of course, for sure it can only be done if you know exactly what you're allergic to. Otherwise, remove all possible allergens, which have already been mentioned.
If there are a lot of rashes, do notrefuse to take antihistamines. Ideally, the doctor should help you to choose a doctor-allergist. But if you do not have the opportunity to consult a doctor, get tavigil or suprastin in the pharmacy. Strictly adhere to the recommended dosage - its excess sufficiently negatively affects the body. And the drug should be taken once, like emergency help. Continue treatment only after visiting a doctor, if necessary.
- Local funds
Rashes cause very severe itching, endurewhich is very, very difficult. In order to get rid of it, you can use the usual zinc ointment, which is sold in each pharmacy. Just apply a thin layer of ointment on the rashes and leave for 20-30 minutes, then rinse with water. If the situation is critical, the doctor will prescribe to you more potent ointments, which include corticosteroids. There are so many different recipes of folk medicine that promise quick relief in allergic urticaria. Doctors are categorically against this kind of treatment, because virtually all recipes are based on the action of certain medicinal plants. And any plant without exception is a potential allergen. And with hives, allergies can be caused by even a well-known plant, which you have already used repeatedly. Therefore, give up folk medicine. The only remedy that deserves your attention is compresses with baking soda, which very well remove even the most intense itching. Compress is simply done - you need only gauze and baking soda. Of gauze, cut a few small napkins and prepare a saturated soda solution - dissolve in a glass of water five teaspoons of soda and mix thoroughly. Dampen with a soda solution a gauze napkin and attach to the blisters, leave for 10-15 minutes. If the napkin dries earlier, change it to wet. After the end of the procedure, do not take a shower for at least one more hour. Itching will disappear quickly enough, and will return in about 3-4 hours. If this happens, you can once again make a soda compress - it is completely safe for health. Treatment of chronic allergic urticaria is a process that is laborious and time consuming, sometimes taking up more than one month. It goes without saying that the treatment plan should be selected exclusively by an allergist doctor. Most often this is the reception of antihistamines, external drugs, restorative measures and, of course, the removal of contact with the allergen. In any case, the doctor will prescribe the treatment, taking into account the specific situation.
Prevention of allergic urticaria
Begin the prevention of allergic urticariayou can even before the birth of a child. A pregnant woman should completely eliminate from her diet all foods that can trigger the development of an allergic reaction. Such products include:
- Fish and all other seafood.
- Sweets and especially chocolate.
- Natural honey and other products of beekeeping.
- Preservatives and dyes of artificial origin.
- Eggs and chicken.
- Carbonated drinks, excluding mineral water.
And this woman should not follow this dietonly during pregnancy, but also throughout the entire period of breastfeeding. And the longer the breastfeeding will be, the less likely the development of any allergic reaction throughout the child's future life. In addition, you should try to avoid contact with various potential allergens soft toys, household chemicals, food, animals. Of course, it is impossible to live in complete isolation, but to take certain measures - completely. Soft toys should be washed more often so that dust does not gather in them, when using household chemicals, use rubber gloves, try not to change the cosmetics that you are familiar with, to which you do not have an allergic reaction. In the event that you can not completely avoid contact with the allergen, the doctor will select the appropriate antihistamines that you will have to take for a long time. In addition, it will not be possible to avoid and strictly adhere to the hypoallergenic diet, otherwise all efforts will be in vain. And, of course, you should always have ointments and creams at your fingertips, which will relieve the itching in the event that you still can not avoid the development of a new attack of allergic urticaria. We advise you to read: