Acute bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi,which is primarily due to the ingress of an infection or a virus into the body. Rarely, the cause may be allergic or chemical factors, even fungal infection. If you overcool, get your feet wet, then the probability of the disease will increase significantly. That is why they fall ill more often in autumn and spring. Predisposed to acute bronchitis are people suffering from chronic infections of the nasopharynx, for example: sinusitis, rhinitis, sinusitis. Very often, with flu, ARI, pertussis, measles, bronchitis occurs. The occurrence of this disease contributes to alcohol and smoking. Also, the development of acute bronchitis can cause irritating effects of essential oils, toxic gases, dust.
Symptoms of the disease
Acute bronchitis does not develop immediately. First, there are early signs that go into a more complex form, if not on time to begin treatment.
Cough is a protective function of the body, itpromotes self-cleaning of the bronchi from mucus, sputum. During the illness, sputum accumulates in the bronchi, which irritates the mucous membranes of the trachea, larynx and bronchi. At the moment of irritation of the mucous membrane, sputum causes a strong breath, and then a convulsive exhalation. At the beginning of this exhalation, the vocal cavity is closed, so the air pressure rises sharply in the bronchi and at the time of exhalation this opening opens with force. The clinical picture of acute bronchitis has three phases:
The first phase is the height of the disease. During this period, clinical signs increase: dry cough, runny nose, fever, headache and weakness. The second phase is an intoxication of the body, when the poisoning of the body begins with the products of the vital activity of the pathogen (bacteria, virus), as well as toxins that the patient's organism produces. During this period expectoration begins. The third phase is the resolution of the disease. In this phase, the function of the respiratory tract is restored. The disease can be mild, moderate and severe. Everything depends on the level of the body's resistance and on the activity of the pathogen (microorganisms). The diagnosis of "acute bronchitis" is based on the general symptoms described above. But only in the event that there are no changes in the lungs, revealed by roentgenology. Therefore, the X-ray of the lungs prescribed by the doctor in this case allows excluding other serious diseases. For example, pneumonia, tuberculosis, etc. By the end of the first week of the disease the symptoms begin to gradually disappear. But cough lasts longer, up to 10 - 14 days. Finally airway and bronchial mucosa are cleaned after 2 - 3 weeks.
Medical treatment of acute bronchitis
The treatment of acute bronchitis is complex and is aimed at:
- fight against the virus, infection;
- restoration of patency in the bronchi;
- elimination of negative factors (household and production);
- a complete course of treatment to prevent the transition of the disease to a chronic form.
Treatment with medications is prescribed to the patient, independing on the symptoms of the course of the disease. This is done only by the attending physician. Antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents are prescribed. If both the nasopharynx and the larynx are affected at the same time, aerosol preparations are very useful, for example: gum, inhalipt, campho; sprinkle 3 to 4 times a day. They contain streptocide, menthol, norsulfazole, camphor oil, etc. Aerosol preparations have anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and local-inhibitory effect. It is necessary to take vitamins of group A, B, C 3 times a day. If symptomatic therapy is ineffective, purulent sputum appears, then antibacterial drugs are prescribed. These are tetracycline, biseptol, semisynthetic penicillins, etc. They affect the bacterial microflora. Also, sulfonamides are used to inhibit the life of microbes. Or they are prescribed in combination with vitamins A, B and C (1 mg per 100 thousand antibacterial agent). Reception of antibiotics in this case is the prevention of pneumonia. Antibiotics do not completely eliminate bronchospasm and do not restore patency in the bronchi. For this reason, if necessary, drugs are prescribed that expand the bronchi. It can be ephedrine, euphyllin, isadrin, etc. If the inflammatory process is protracted and does not lend itself to antibacterial therapy, it is recommended to combine it with the introduction of aerosol prodigiosans (using an ultrasound inhaler). Assign 4 inhalations, 2 times a week, 1 inhalation apply 1 mg. preparation. For medical rehabilitation use warm alkaline inhalations with sea salt or mineral water, for example, "Essentuki" or "Borjomi". For the general strengthening of the body and its hardening, irradiation with ultraviolet, ionotherapy and electrophoresis on the thorax is recommended. A special method of physical therapy is applied, it includes breathing and sound gymnastics, special training. Staying in a sanatorium or suburban rehabilitation department is very conducive to the recovery of patients.
Treatment of bronchitis with folk methods
Treatment of acute bronchitis in children
Dear parents, please note that acuteThe bronchitis in some cases can give complications and develop into pneumonia or bronchiolitis. There are certain signs indicating an unfavorable course of the disease, when it is necessary to consult a doctor:
- Stably high temperature, above 38 degrees.
- The general severe condition of the child, lasting more than 3-4 days.
- Shortness of breath in a baby: from 60 breaths per minute in infants to 2 months, from 50 breaths per minute in babies from 3 months to a year and from 40 breaths per minute in children from 1 year to 3 years.
- At an inhalation the skin on intercostal gaps is considerably drawn
In these cases, the child must be immediately hospitalized.